Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) is a device that continuously provides backup AC power for electrical load devices and maintains the normal operation of electrical appliances when the power grid is abnormal. Uninterruptible power supply systems can be divided into online, offline, and line interactive. The power requirements of each field are different. How to choose a suitable one?
What is an Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS)?
Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) is a device that continuously provides backup AC power for electrical load devices and maintains the normal operation of electrical appliances when the power grid is abnormal. Under normal circumstances, the uninterruptible power system is used to maintain the uninterrupted execution of key commercial devices such as computers or switches, or precision instruments to prevent loss of computer data, interruption of telephone communication networks, or loss of control of instruments. The uninterruptible power system is a device that allows us to maintain power during power outages. Its batteries store electrical energy in normal times and immediately convert the DC power in the battery into AC output to provide machine power when the power is out.
The use of electricity has become a part of our daily life. We usually don't notice its existence when electricity is normally supplied. However, once the power is cut off, we will find that the impact of electricity is extensive. When there is a power outage, various situations will arise, such as the air conditioner not working, the refrigerator no longer being able to store food, and the elevator not working, bringing life to a near standstill. The lack of electricity at work will also cause the information equipment to be inoperable and may cause industrial and commercial losses to varying degrees. For hospitals, the problems derived from power outages are even more serious, because there are many life-sustaining devices in the wards and operating rooms. If these devices stop, the lives of patients may be affected. Therefore, an uninterruptible power system is required to maintain the progress of various tasks.
Benefits of Using UPS Uninterruptible Power System:
- Provide power backup.
- Protect important data.
- Ensure the operation of connected equipment.
- With a surge protection function.
- Provides clean and stable power.
What are the Types of UPS?
- The online uninterruptible power system is the most stable way at present, but the cost is relatively high.
- The offline type has a simple structure and low price and is currently the most commonly purchased device for the public.
- Online interactive products are products with functions and prices in between.
The uninterruptible power system is a device that can maintain power during a power outage. The battery of the uninterruptible power system has the function of storing electricity and can supply the normal power of the device at the same time. When a power failure occurs, the uninterruptible power system can immediately take over the power supply and convert the direct current in the battery into alternating current, which is used to output and maintain the normal operation of various machines. At this time, in addition to continuously providing equipment power, the UPS helps users shut down the system according to normal procedures in case of complete power failure, to reduce equipment damage or data loss.
- Online: It can convert the alternating current (AC) into the direct current (DC) storage of the battery. In addition to storing power in the battery, it can also provide power to electrical equipment from the uninterruptible power system at the same time. To put it simply, this electrical equipment usually uses the power of the uninterruptible power supply system. Once a power outage occurs, the equipment can still maintain normal operation without any impact, and there is no need for any switching time. In addition, since all electricity will be converted by the uninterruptible power system, the best sine wave will be generated. Therefore, the protection ability of the equipment against noise and surge can be increased. Although using an online uninterruptible power system is the most stable method at present, the structure of this type of equipment is relatively complicated and the cost is high, and most of them are only suitable for precision instruments.
- Offline type: Offline type is the simplest uninterruptible power supply system. It has two lines inside. The first line is to connect the power supply to the equipment, and the other is to connect the power supply of Taipower to the uninterruptible power supply. system battery. Although it looks like the equipment is connected to the uninterruptible power system on the outside the first line is usually used to receive power, so the current power supply status will be received by the equipment as ordered. If there is noise or a surge in the power system, electrical equipment will be directly affected. When a power outage happens, unfortunately, it will switch to the battery path of the second uninterruptible power system within tens of milliseconds. Since this period is quite short, the computer will not be shut down because of this, but it will cause damage to the electronic components of precision equipment and may affect the life of the hardware. Because of its simple structure and low price, it is the most commonly used uninterruptible power supply device.
- Online interactive type: When users feel that the offline type is not safe enough, worry that the life of the equipment will be affected by the sudden interruption of the current, and care about the high price of the online type, the online interactive uninterruptible power supply system is the best choice. The online interactive uninterruptible power supply system is a product whose function and price are between the former two. It mainly hopes to achieve the advantages of the online type, but the price is as close as possible to the offline type. Although the methods provided by various manufacturers are different, we can evaluate whether there is better filtering, shorter switching time, and a more stable power supply than the offline type. When the voltage is unstable, the uninterruptible power system will start to supply battery power, and the power switching time during a power outage can be shorter than that of the offline type, and even achieve seamless integration. Most devices will improve the power supply of this uninterruptible power system by establishing a power management program and an automatic voltage regulator (AVR).
What is the Specification of a UPS Uninterruptible Power System?
- Battery capacity VA/Rated capacity VA: Usually appear on the model, such as 500VA, 1000VA, the larger the number, the larger the battery capacity (500VA~1000VA can use about 1~2 PCs).
- Output power W/rated capacity W: This specification indicates the maximum output power that this UPS system can provide. Before purchasing, you must confirm the total power W of the equipment to be connected, so as not to choose wrongly (the simplest algorithm is twice the actual power consumption).
- Input voltage: In Taiwan, the sockets at home are usually 110V, so before choosing a UPS uninterruptible power system, you must first determine whether you are buying a 110V or 220V mains input voltage.
- Output voltage: If the equipment and computer to be connected are 110V, then the output voltage of the UPS uninterruptible power system must be within this range. If the selected UPS has a voltage stabilizing function, it will also be marked in this place.
Need an Uninterruptible Power System?
- Desktop computer users: As long as there is a power outage, the computers of workers who rely on desktop computers or e-sports players will be forced to shut down, and the data that has not been saved will be gone forever.
- Persons with data storage facilities: If someone has a data storage device, the data may be damaged during a power outage.
- The site voltage is unstable: When the voltage in the home is often unstable and there will be a power trip, or when using a large electrical appliance, the lights in the home will flash once, which means that the current is unstable. At this time, a UPS uninterruptible power system is needed to protect the electronic products in the home.
Where are Uninterruptible Power Supply Units Required?
After understanding the types of UPS, we need to evaluate where UPS is needed. However, since the power requirements of each site are different, how to choose a suitable UPS?
- Home: Taiwan is located at the intersection of the Philippine Sea plate and the Eurasian continental plate, resulting in frequent earthquakes, coupled with its proximity to the Pacific Ocean, making Taiwan affected by the typhoon. Once natural disasters such as earthquakes and typhoons lead to power outages, the issue of escape is usually the primary consideration. If you need to open the iron rolling door during a power outage, you need to build a single voltage (220 V) uninterruptible power system for the iron rolling door. For this demand, as long as you choose an offline uninterruptible power system, it can provide power to help us open it. The iron rolling door achieves the function of escape, and usually only needs tens of minutes of electricity to complete the task. However, if you want to use it to provide electricity for the refrigerator and keep the refrigerator running for a long time to avoid food spoilage, you need to use a small generator to provide the energy for the generator to run, to maintain the refrigerator for a long time.
In addition, if it is hoped that computer equipment will not be affected by power outages, it is also recommended to establish an online interactive or offline uninterruptible power supply system on desktop computers, which can provide power for equipment for tens of minutes during power outages, allowing us to have buffer time to restore computers Shut down normally to avoid damage to the computer or loss of data; and because of the built-in battery of the notebook computer, it will not be affected immediately when the power is cut off, so there is no need to build an uninterruptible power supply system.
- Company: The company can be divided into a computer room and an office area. The computer room usually has large computer servers, data storage devices, network equipment, etc. If these devices encounter a power outage, they will suffer heavy losses. Therefore, it is hoped that the power will not be interrupted during a power outage to avoid abnormalities a power outage causes a service outage or server damage. Due to the high level of such demand, it is recommended to consider large-capacity batteries and establish an online uninterruptible power supply system to provide high-standard power continuation solutions. And build generators that will automatically start up once a power interruption is detected, to provide long-term power support, so that the power of the computer room is not interrupted. In addition, it is also necessary to consider the temperature and humidity requirements of the computer room so that the air conditioner can operate normally. Therefore, regular drills are also required at ordinary times to test whether the uninterruptible power system and power generation device can operate normally during power outages. It is also necessary to cooperate with off-site backup, backup, and cloud storage solutions to ensure that the data in the computer room will not be lost. The needs of the office area are much simpler than that. It is enough to consider the business attributes to build an uninterruptible power system. Whether it is online, offline, or online interactive, it is a good choice. You can evaluate the system according to your budget.
If the demand is high, the office area can also imitate the computer room, supply power through the modules of the large uninterruptible power system, and mark the special sockets for uninterrupted power systems and general power sockets in the office with different colors. That user can clearly understand that connect the information equipment that needs uninterrupted power to the dedicated socket, and the rest of the equipment that is okay if the power is cut off is shunted to the power socket.
- Hospital: Hospitals have many equipment involved in the life support of patients, so power planning is even more important. In important places such as national defense, transportation, hospitals, government agencies, etc., power outages will be ruled out first during rolling outages. However, in the past few major power outages, some hospitals were still affected. It can be seen that the normal operation of hospital power is an important issue. Although the priority is to provide hospitals with the promise of a non-stop power supply during power cuts, the factors of power outages are very complicated, and it is difficult to guarantee that the hospital's power will never be affected during power outages. Therefore, the hospital's planning for power backup is particularly important.
- General emergency power supply: After the normal power supply is interrupted, the circuit that can restore the power supply within 40 seconds, at least has a way to operate for more than 10 hours, and is mainly installed in important machines, lighting, and other equipment.
- Special emergency power supply: A circuit that can restore power supply within 10 seconds after the normal power supply is interrupted, and can operate for at least 10 hours. It is mainly used for important medical equipment such as life support devices.
- Uninterruptible emergency power supply: After the common power supply is interrupted, the circuit (medical UPS) that will not be interrupted instantaneously can operate for at least 10 minutes. It will be used together with a general or special emergency power supply. It is mainly used for unallowable power such as surgical lights. interrupted device.
How to Extend the Battery Life of a UPS Uninterruptible Power System?
How long does the UPS uninterruptible power system supply power?
- Periodic discharge: Fully charge for the first use, deep discharge at least once every three months, unplug the UPS, and let the equipment use the power of the UPS (some UPS can set the time to discharge by itself, even if it is not Pulling out the plug can also automatically fix the discharge).
- The location should be ventilated: It should not be placed in a place with high temperature. The high temperature will reduce the battery life. The ideal temperature is about 25 degrees, and the humidity should not be higher than 80%.
- Do not overload: Select the number of connected devices according to the UPS load.
- The backup time of the UPS uninterruptible power system needs to allow enough time to respond to abnormal power pressure. Generally speaking, 5-10 minutes is enough.
- If it takes a longer time to respond, you can consider adding a battery pack to extend the backup time.