Lathes machining is mainly used for removal processing and is a common type of machine tool in the machine tool industry.
Lathes are one of the most versatile machine tools in the industry, used to perform a variety of machining operations. The lathe is applied to the tool and rotated to perform various operations. It can be used for turning, tapping, forming turning, spiral cutting, finishing, passivation, boring, spinning, grinding, polishing, etc.
The main function of the lathe is to remove the material from the workpiece and make the workpiece the desired shape and size. During the travel of the lathe, the workpiece is rotated against the tool to achieve material removal and the direction of the tool movement becomes feed.
The main parts of the lathe are:
The headstock is usually located on the left side of the lathe and is equipped with gears, spindles, chucks, gear speed control levers, and feed controllers.
Usually located on the right side of the lathe, the workpiece is supported at the end.
The main parts of the lathe, all parts are bolted to the bed. It includes the headstock, tailstock, carriage rails and other parts.
The carriage is located between the headstock and the tailstock and contains apron, saddle, compound rest, cross slide and tool post.
- Lead Screw
The lead screw is used to move the carriage automatically during threading.
- Feed Rod
It is used to move the carriage from left to right and vice versa.
- Chip Pan
It is present at the bottom of the lathe. Chip pan is used to collect the chips that are produced during the lathe operation.
- Hand Wheel
It is the wheel that is operated by hand to move a cross slide, carriage, tailstock and other parts that have handwheel.
Lathe machine is generally divided into three types: Engine Lathe, Turret Lathe, and Special Purpose Lathe.
What is the Function of CNC Lathe?
CNC lathes and turning centers are high-precision and high-efficiency automated machine tools. Equipped with a multi-station turret or power turret, the machine tool has a wide range of processing performance. It can process linear cylinders, oblique cylinders, arcs, and various threads, grooves, worms, and other complex workpieces, with linear interpolation, arcs Interpolate various compensation functions, and play a good economic effect in the mass production of complex parts.
"CNC" is the abbreviation of English Computerized Numerical Control (. CNC machine tool is to automatically process the parts to be processed according to the pre-programmed processing program. The processing route, process parameters, tool motion trajectory, and displacement, Cutting parameters (spindle revolutions, feed, back-grabbing, etc.) and auxiliary functions (tool change, spindle forward, reverse, cutting fluid on, off, etc.), following the instruction code and program specified by the CNC machine tool The format is compiled into a processing program list, and the contents of the program list are recorded on the control medium (such as punched tape, magnetic tape, magnetic disk, and bubble memory), and then input into the numerical control device of the numerical control machine tool to command the tool Machined parts.
This whole process from the analysis of the part drawing to the preparation of the control medium is called the compilation of the NC program. The difference between the CNC machine tool and ordinary machine tool processing parts is that the CNC machine tool automatically processes parts according to the program, while the ordinary machine tool must be operated by humans. We can achieve the purpose of processing different parts by changing the program that controls the action of the machine tool. Therefore, the CNC machine tool is particularly suitable for processing small batches of parts with complex shapes and high precision requirements.
Since the CNC machine tool must process the parts according to the program, the programmer will input the program into the CNC device to command the machine tool to work. The input of the program is through the control medium.
What Are the Structures of CNC Lathes?
The CNC lathe is composed of CNC devices, bed, headstock, tool post feed system, tailstock, hydraulic system, cooling system, lubrication system, chip conveyor, and other parts. CNC lathes are divided into two types: vertical CNC lathes and horizontal CNC lathes.
- Vertical CNC lathes are used for the turning of disk parts with larger turning diameters.
- Horizontal CNC lathes are used for turning machining of parts with long axial dimensions or small discs.
Horizontal CNC lathes can be further divided into economical CNC lathes, ordinary CNC lathes, and turning machining centers according to their functions.
Hydraulic chuck and hydraulic tailstock
- Economical CNC lathe: A simple CNC lathe formed by reforming the turning feed system of an ordinary lathe with a stepping motor and a single-chip computer. The cost is low, the degree of automation and functions are relatively poor, and the turning precision is not high. It is suitable for turning the processing of rotating parts with low requirements.
- Ordinary CNC lathe: a CNC lathe that is specially designed in a structure according to the requirements of turning to process and is equipped with a general CNC system. The CNC system has strong functions, a high degree of automation and machining accuracy, and is suitable for turning the processing of general rotary parts. This CNC lathe can control two coordinate axes at the same time, namely the x-axis and the z-axis.
- Turning machining center: Based on ordinary CNC lathes, a C axis and powerhead are added. More advanced machine tools also have a tool magazine, which can control the three coordinate axes of X, Z and C. The linkage control axis can be Is (X, Z), (X, C), or (Z, C). Due to the addition of the C-axis and milling powerhead, the processing functions of this CNC lathe are greatly enhanced. In addition to general turning, it can also perform radial and axial milling, surface milling, and holes and diameters whose centerline is not at the center of the part's rotation. Drilling and other processing of holes.
Hydraulic chuck is an important accessory for clamping workpieces during CNC turning. Ordinary hydraulic chucks can be used for general rotating parts; special chucks are required for parts whose clamping parts are not cylindrical; use bar materials directly A spring chuck is required when machining parts.
For parts with a large ratio of axial size to radial size, it is necessary to use a live center-mounted on a hydraulic tailstock to support the end of the part to ensure the correct processing of the part. The tailstock has ordinary hydraulic tailstock and programmable hydraulic tailstock.
The tool holder of CNC lathe
The CNC lathe can be equipped with two tool holders:
- The special tool post is developed by the lathe manufacturer, and the tool holder used is also special. The advantage of this tool holder is its low manufacturing cost but lacks versatility.
- General tool holders are produced according to certain general standards (such as VDI, German Engineers Association). CNC lathe manufacturers can choose and configure according to the functional requirements of CNC lathes.
After the milling powerhead is installed on the tool post of the CNC lathe, the processing capacity of the CNC lathe can be greatly expanded. Such as: using a milling powerhead for axial drilling and milling of axial grooves.
Tools for CNC lathes
When turning parts on a CNC lathe or a turning machining center, the position of the tool on the tool holder should be reasonably and scientifically arranged according to the tool holder structure of the lathe and the number of tools that can be installed, and attention should be paid to avoid the tool when the tool is stationary and working. Interference phenomenon with machine tools, tools and workpieces, and tools.
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