Application of High-Pressure Processing Technology in Agricultural Food
Food Processing Industry
Food safety issues have always been the focus of social attention, and the public also expects the importance of relevant units for food safety prevention and control. Supervising food processing industries pay attention to food safety, which will relatively promote the improvement and development of food processing technology.
Traditional agricultural foods often use various processing methods such as high-temperature heating, drying, and the use of food additives to sterilize or inhibit the growth of microorganisms, thereby extending the shelf life and improving the different flavors and shapes of the products, but also resulting in the texture, taste, and nutrients of natural food materials drain. High-pressure processing technology (HPP processing) is a non-heat treatment food processing technology. It is applied to the processing of agricultural products. In addition to reducing the loss of nutritional value, functional ingredients, and freshness during the sterilization process, it can also remove harmful pathogens and improve the safety and maintenance of agricultural foods. Thus, the HPP food processing for short.
What is High-Pressure Processing Technology?
High-pressure processing technology (HPP processing) is a novel non-thermal food processing technology (HPP food processing). Its special processing method is to seal the food through a soft packaging material, and at room temperature, the microbes and enzymes in the food are lost at an ultra-high pressure of 100-600MPa. Live, high-pressure processed food can maintain the original flavor and nutritional value, extend the shelf life of cold storage, and have the same level of food safety as traditional heat sterilization methods. It has been listed by the US Food and Drug Administration as a substitute for Pasteurization's non-pasteurization technology.
A. Principles of high-pressure processing technology
The application principle of high-pressure processing technology is to place sealed and packaged food in a closed, heat-insulated container, using liquid as the pressure transmission medium (water) and applying an ultra-high pressure of 100-600MPa at room temperature to allow the food to be exposed to the inside and outside. The pressure is uniform to achieve the purpose of sterilization. The sterilization effect is not affected by the shape and size of the packaging. Even foods of different sizes can be processed in the same batch. The microbiological safety of the food can be maintained without adding preservatives, and the food can be processed after processing. The products retain the natural flavor and nutritional value of the original ingredients, so high-pressure processing technology can also be called a light processing technology that considers food safety and flavor. Compared with traditional thermal processing technology, high-pressure processing technology operates at room temperature, avoiding energy consumption such as heating and subsequent cooling, and the food is in a packaged form and will not directly contact with processing equipment, which can avoid secondary pollution after sterilization When the situation occurs, the pressure transmission medium can also be recycled and reused after processing. It has the advantages of low energy consumption and low pollution, which is a relatively friendly processing technology for the environment.
B. Development and application of high-pressure processing technology
The high-pressure processing technology originated from the discovery by researchers that egg protein will coagulate under high pressure, that is, high pressure can destroy or form non-covalent bonds such as hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, and hydrophobic bonds in agricultural food ingredients. The mechanism of sterilization includes the destruction of microbial cell membranes, denaturation of proteins required for microbial growth, destruction of DNA transcription and solidification of phospholipids on cell membranes, etc., causing major changes in the growing microbial cells to achieve a sterilization effect, which will affect the agricultural food itself. The effects include enzyme inactivation, starch gelatinization, and reduction of microbial content, thereby extending the product's shelf life.
High-pressure processing technology mainly uses liquid as the medium to transfer pressure. The agricultural food that has been sealed and packaged is subjected to physical sterilization in an ultra-high-pressure environment with appropriate temperature and time. Compared with heat sterilization technology, high-pressure sterilization is more effective the physical properties of the product are kept relatively intact, and it has very little effect on vitamin destruction, foreign body formation and texture.
In advanced countries such as Europe and the United States, high-pressure processing technology has long been used in various processed foods, including ham, smoked beef bacon, and sausages; aquatic products include oysters, lobster, cod, and shellfish, while in the field of fruit and vegetable products, the United States uses High-pressure sterilization is used in vegetable and fruit products, including guacamole and sauces. Later, high-pressure sterilization products such as soy products, jams, and juices have been launched. At present, Taiwan's industry has introduced high-pressure processing technology, which is used in the processing of vegetable juice and OEM meat products, and other customized processed products.
C. Application limitations of high-pressure processing technology
Although high-pressure sterilization has good prospects in agricultural food processing, it also has potential limitations. For example, high-pressure sterilization can only inhibit part of the enzyme activity and must be stored at low temperature to extend its shelf life; high-pressure sterilization is for drying with low water activity The sterilization effect of the product is poor. It must be combined with other preservation techniques such as high sugar and high salt to achieve significant effects. High-pressure sterilization cannot produce a browning aroma or appearance. For some products, it cannot provide sensory effects to increase the sense of sight and smell. In addition, High-pressure sterilization consumes a lot of energy, and high-pressure sterilization may have to cooperate with fence technology to maximize the effect.
Food Science and Technology Development
The application of high-pressure processing technology is a new challenge for food research and development personnel, whether it is the basic principle of sterilization, the design and verification of sterilization conditions, the control of the impact on product quality, the maintenance and repair of equipment, and even the cost control. Learn from the new. However, high-pressure sterilization technology can meet the needs of the industry in the three aspects of improving product quality, safety, and prolonging storage. Whether it is cooked food or fresh food, there are many opportunities for innovation.
In recent years, global health awareness has risen, and foods tend to be healthy and additive-free. High-Pressure Processing (HPP processing) of high-pressure sterilization can achieve sterilization and retain flavor and nutrition. This technology has also become the development potential of the fresh food and food technology industry. By introducing various novel processing technologies and preservation methods such as high-pressure processing and sterilization, and developing innovative products to meet consumer demand, will help product market segmentation and create revenue growth in the food processing and sales market.