The stamping process can make these advantages that cannot be achieved by mechanical processing through various mold applications, so its use is becoming more and more widespread. Today I will introduce you to the definition and characteristics of the punch press.
What is a punch?
A punch press is a stamping press, also one of machine tool. In the production, the stamping process saves materials, energy, and efficiency compared with traditional machining. It has low technical requirements for the operator and can make products that cannot be achieved by machining through various mold applications. The use of is getting wider and wider.
Stamping production is mainly for sheet metal. Through the die, it can make blanking, punching, forming, deep drawing, trimming, fine blanking, shaping, riveting and extrusion parts, etc., which are widely used in various fields.
In our daily life, we often see switches, sockets, cups, cupboards, dishes, computer cases, and even missiles, airplanes, etc., and there are many accessories that can be produced by punching through molds.
Uses and characteristics of punch
Punching machines are widely used in the stamping and forming of hardware parts such as electronics, communications, computers, household appliances, furniture, and transportation, such as automobiles, motorcycles, and bicycles.
It has the following characteristics:
- High-rigidity, high-precision frame, welded with steel plates, and after heat treatment, the internal stress of the fuselage is eliminated, so that the equipment can work stably without deformation for a long time.
- A load of structural parts is even and the rigidity is balanced.
- Stable high precision
The main parts of the equipment, such as crankshaft, gear, transmission shaft, etc., are hardened and heat-treated after grinding and have high wear resistance. The long-term performance is stable, ensuring the requirements of high precision and stability.
- Reliable and safe operation performance
Because the combined device which is different from the traditional brake has a high sensitivity, coupled with the double electromagnetic control valve and overload protection device commonly used in international high-end equipment, it ensures the accuracy and safety of the high-speed movement and stops of the punch sliders.
- Production automation, labor-saving, and high efficiency
The punch can be matched with the corresponding automatic feeding device, with feeding error detection, pre-cutting and pre-breaking devices, which can fully realize automatic production, low cost and high efficiency.
- Slider adjustment mechanism
The quick adjustment is divided into manual adjustment and electric adjustment, which is convenient, reliable, safe and fast, and the accuracy can reach 0.1mm.
- Novel design and environmental protection
Using advanced technology and design concepts from Japan, it has the advantages of low noise, low energy consumption and no pollution.
Classification of Punch
According to the driving power, it can be divided into:
(1) Mechanical Power Press
(2) Hydraulic Press
For ordinary sheet metal stamping, most of them use mechanical punching machines. Hydraulic presses are different depending on the liquid used. There are hydraulic presses and oil presses. The majority of oil presses are used. Hydraulic presses are mostly used for giant machines or special machines.
According to the slider drive structure, it can be divided into:
(1) Crank Press
Presses using crankshaft mechanisms are called crankshaft presses. The reason why the crankshaft mechanism is used the most is that it is easy to make, the end position under the stroke can be correctly determined, and the movable curve of the slider is basically used for various processing. Therefore, this type of stamping is actually used for punching, bending, stretching, hot forging, warm forging, cold forging, and almost all other punching processes.
(2) Crankless Press
Crankless presses are also called eccentric gear presses. The functions of crankshaft presses and eccentric gear presses are measured. The eccentric gear presses are superior to crankshafts in terms of shaft rigidity, lubrication, appearance, and care. But the disadvantage is the higher price. When the operation time is longer, the eccentric gear punch is more advantageous, and the operation time of the special punching machine is shorter, the crankshaft punch is better. Therefore, the small machine and high-speed punching punch are also the fields of crankshaft punch.
(3) Knuckle Press
Those who use the toggle mechanism on the slider drive are called toggle punches. This type of punch has a unique slider motion curve where the speed of the slider near the bottom dead center becomes extremely slow (as measured by the crank press). And it also correctly determines the position of the dead point under the stroke. Therefore, this punch is suitable for compression processing such as embossing and finishing and is currently used mostly in cold room forging.
(4) Friction Press
Presses that use friction transmission and screw mechanisms on the track drive are called friction punches. This type of punch is most suitable for forging and crushing operations. It can also be used for bending, forming, stretching, etc. It has a versatile function. Because of its low price, it was widely used before the war. Because of the inability to determine the end position under the stroke, poor processing accuracy, slow production speed, excessive load when the control operation is wrong, and the need for skilled technology in use, it is gradually being eliminated today.
(5) Screw Press
Those who use the screw mechanism on the slider drive mechanism are called screw punches (or screw punches).
(6) Rack Press
The rack and pinion mechanism used on the slider drive mechanism is called a rack type punch. Spiral punches have almost the same characteristics as rack punches, and their characteristics are almost the same as those of hydraulic punches. It used to be used to squeeze bushings, debris and other items for extrusion, oil extraction, packing, and cartridge casing extrusion (hot-press extrusion processing), etc., but today it has been replaced by hydraulic presses unless extremely special Is no longer used outside of the situation.
(7) Link Press
Presses that use various link mechanisms on the slider drive mechanism are called link-type punches. The purpose of using the link mechanism is to reduce the cycle of the processing while maintaining the stretching speed within the limit during the extension processing and use the reduction of the speed change of the extension processing to speed up the approaching stroke and from the top dead center to the processing start point. The speed of the return stroke from the bottom dead center to the top dead center makes it have a shorter cycle than the crank press to improve productivity. This type of punch has been used for the deep extension of cylindrical containers since ancient times. The bed surface is narrow, but it is used for the processing of automobile body panels and the bed surface is wide.
(8) Cam Press
A punch press using a cam mechanism on the slider drive mechanism is called a cam punch press. The characteristic of this kind of punching machine is the cam shape which is made properly, so as to obtain the desired slider moving curve easily. However, due to the nature of the cam mechanism, it is difficult to convey greater force, so the punching capacity is very small.