Since Germany called out "Industry 4.0", the related issues have quickly fermented around the world. U.S. government immediately put forward the "Advanced Manufacturing Partnership Program (AMP)" focusing on emerging technologies that can be quickly commercialized. Government R&D facilities are shared to promote industry one-stop collaborative R&D capabilities, reducing the risks of commercialization.
What Is Advanced Manufacturing?
Advanced manufacturing is the use of innovative technologies and methodologies to enhance output and increase added value in the manufacturing sectors.
Advocate the Development of Advanced Manufacturing
Today's global manufacturing output has reached an unprecedented peak, helping millions of people get out of poverty. Except for China's rapid rise, the output of manufacturing powers such as U.S., Japan, Germany, Britain, and India remain roughly unchanged, with the U.S. still taking the lead.
Although the current U.S. job market is sluggish, and productivity has been weak from the mid-1960s to the 21st century, U.S. manufacturing output has grown six-fold, the job market is stable, and job opportunities have not been lost due to increased productivity. What the U.S. needs to look back at is the impact of manufacturing on the economy. For a long time, the U.S. has only focused on boosting the wholesale, financial, retail, and professional services industries, but these industries have created the least additional economic benefits. The study pointed out that every dollar invested in manufacturing can create additional economic demand of 1.37 US dollars, while retail trade only creates 0.57 US dollars, and the financial industry is even less, only 0.53 US dollars, which means that manufacturing can create the most demand for jobs and services. Therefore, if we want to drive the economy, we must pay attention to the overall economic development and direction of the industry.
At present, there is a gap between basic R&D activities in the U.S. and the promotion of technological innovation made in the country. This gap has caused an imbalance in the trade of advanced manufacturing products, resulting in a much lower proportion of added value in the manufacturing industry when compared to Japan, South Korea, and Germany. The American academic circle has ample research and development energy but lacks a mechanism to commercialize inventions. Therefore, it urgently needs federal policy support to accelerate the development of advanced manufacturing.
Advanced Manufacturing Partner Program (AMP) in the U.S.
In 2011, the U.S. Department of Commerce established AMNPO, which is responsible for the overall planning and coordination of advanced manufacturing-related governance and the establishment of research institutes to manage the open competition.
Advanced manufacturing includes two types of activities: the first is the use and integration of information, automation, computing, software, sensing, and network technologies, and the second is the use of the latest materials and emerging technologies spawned by disciplines such as nanotechnology, chemistry, and biology. New methods can be used to produce existing products, and new and advanced technologies can also be used to create new products.
The Advanced Manufacturing Partner Program (AMP) is expected to achieve four major goals:
- Strengthen local manufacturing capabilities of key products that are critical to national security.
- Shorten the time course of advanced materials from developing and manufacturing products to market application and promotion.
- Develop next-generation robots and establish a leading position in the US industry.
- Research open and innovative energy-saving manufacturing technologies and improve the energy efficiency of the manufacturing process.
Advanced Manufacturing Technology Alliance
In 2013, the Advanced Manufacturing Technology Alliance (AMTech) was promoted. This alliance provides the necessary resources for the industry through cooperation between the public and private sectors. It supports competitive basic and applied research, and strengthens the R&D energy of the US manufacturing industry, and drives the industry to promote.
National manufacturing innovation network:
The U.S. academia has ample research and development energy, but it is unable to commercialize ideas to drive the economy. Although industry can systematically test and promote product launches, its research and development capabilities are insufficient. The U.S. government proposed the "National Manufacturing Innovation Network (NNMI).", The Department of Energy, the Department of Commerce, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the National Science Foundation are responsible for five federal agencies, aiming to build a bridge between basic research in academia and commercialization of the industry, and set up 15 Manufacturing Innovation Institutes (IMI), as regional innovation and talent cultivation centers. Each research institute will develop unique key areas, pool resources of enterprises, universities, and community colleges, and strive to become a sustainable development center of excellence, but at the same time, share infrastructure, intellectual property rights, commissioned research, and performance indicators. Cut the strengths to make up for the weaknesses, and provide the capabilities and facilities needed to reduce costs and risks when new technologies are commercialized.
The purpose of digital manufacturing is to use enhanced and interoperable information technology systems in the supply chain to improve product design and manufacturing processes and focus on integrating design, production, and product use data to reduce manufacturing time and costs. The method is to link design and manufacturing, sustainability, and final product disposal systems through an integrated computer system containing simulation, 3D visualization, analysis, and other collaborative tools to make digital technology more mature. In the implementation of the design, smart sensors, controllers, and software are integrated to improve sustainability and consider system information security.
The purpose of smart manufacturing is to reduce manufacturing costs through real-time energy management, energy productivity, and process energy efficiency. In smart manufacturing, there is a process platform driven by data interconnection, which combines innovative simulation and advanced sensing. These interconnections control to integrate real-time energy management data throughout the entire production operation, minimizing the use of energy and raw materials. For industries with large amounts of energy consumption, smart manufacturing is especially important.
Global Manufacturing Trends
5G and Smart Manufacturing, Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR), Cybersecurity, Predictive Maintenance, Wearable Technology will be the dominant manufacturing industry development trends.
Smart factories want to take advantage of the benefits of automation, artificial intelligence (AI), and the Internet of Things (IoT). They need to rely on sensors and connected devices to collect process data which can analyze and guide workers’ operations accordingly. Therefore, a high-speed, low-latency, and reliable 5G wireless network is the best choice. 5G networks can create new revenue streams for the industry, and the biggest beneficiaries will be the energy industry, manufacturing, and public utilities.
AR and VR are widely used in the manufacturing industry. Manufacturers are increasingly good at using AR and VR technology to strengthen the Digital Connectivity within the organization. They are expected to play a significant role in improving process efficiency, improving product design and development, and effectively maintaining machinery.
With the increasing number of connected devices, the importance of network security is self-evident. The manufacturing industry must have a strong sense of awareness, and actively respond to prevent security breaches from happening. In addition, manufacturers must also pay attention to two key measures: communicating the importance of network security to the organization, and implementing a clear and effective network security strategy.
Effective maintenance of equipment is the key to successful manufacturing. Industry 4.0 uses preventive maintenance to analyze the data collected in the process to identify potential problems before equipment failures and solve them immediately. Effectively predicting failures will reduce operation interruptions, and support real-time optimization of maintenance operations and extend the life of equipment. Manufacturers must understand and master all equipment. They need to collect and accumulate large amounts of real-time equipment operation data, which will effectively help them predict maintenance, and more accurately forecast and shorten lead times.
The popularity of IoT in industrial applications has driven the application of wearable technology in the manufacturing industry. Convenience, work efficiency, and portability have prompted various manufacturers, regardless of scale, to evaluate and invest in wearable devices equipped with various sensors. To assist the workforce. The electronic features of wearable devices allow organizations to monitor and improve the efficiency, productivity, and safety of their workforce. In addition, they can also collect useful information, track activities, and provide customized experiences on demand. The potential applications of wearable devices in the manufacturing industry include AR, authentication, process improvement, remote management, safety perception, injury prevention, safety planning, and Situational Awareness, training, etc. In addition, technological advancements can support wearable devices to monitor and collect the wearer's blood oxygen level, body temperature, and heart rate in real-time. Employees can also use this information to adjust welfare plans and reduce health care expenditures.