What is Brain-Computer Interface (BCI)? - Relying on two-way learning between the human brain and computers
Knowledge

What is Brain-Computer Interface (BCI)? - Relying on two-way learning between the human brain and computers

The core value of the brain-computer interface: Communication without action. People can communicate with the outside world and even control surrounding objects through the will of the brain without the need to move any part of the body.
Published: Feb 18, 2022
What is Brain-Computer Interface (BCI)? - Relying on two-way learning between the human brain and computers

What is a brain-computer interface?

The brain-computer interface uses brainwave electrical signals to communicate between humans and machines, allowing patients to control electric devices such as wheelchairs or robotic arms which can be used to grab objects. After the user visually observes the surrounding environment, the user concentrates on the action to be performed, and the generated electroencephalogram (EEG) is received by a non-invasive electrode patch placed on the surface of the head, which is then transmitted to the computer software. The computer processes the EEG signal generated, extracting the information received, decoding it, and performing the desired action on the object. The brain-computer interface provides the physically handicapped person with a way of using their thoughts to control the computer, replacing the keyboard, mouse, and voice input methods, all of which require actual movement of the body.

How does a brain-computer interface work?

Brain-computer interface technology can directly detect activities in the brain, including concentration, thinking, stress, etc. There are many potential benefits, but also risks for abuse. Software can adjust light sources and play stress-relieving music, but imagine a supervisor who monitors the concentration of employees, or even uses brain commands to control the stress level of employees.

Using the brain to directly control computers and machinery is an example of the use of a brain-computer interface. Brain-computer interfaces measure brain activity, extract characteristics of specific activities, and convert these characteristics into digital output signals that replace, restore, enhance, supplement or improve human function. The advantage of this is that it is free from the requirements of most interactive interfaces for sensory reception such as vision and hearing, and physical participation, so that more disabled people can participate in their use without burden. More functions of BCI are still in the experimental development stage, but the main application at present is to replace lost functions, such as communication and mobility.

In recent years, related research on the brain-computer interface has mainly focused on the acquisition of signals, as well as the processing and calculation of signals. EEG signals are collected by wireless dry electrodes attached to the scalp. Compared with connections to the cerebral cortex which collect information during surgery, external dry electrodes have the advantages of low invasiveness and a simple operation procedure. Research has led to algorithms that identify EEG signals and extract their features, reduce noise interference, adjust the actions of control devices, and improve reliability.

Since the measured EEG signal is the result of the superposition of the firing of multiple neurons, researchers must analyze the brainwave characteristics of the user's brain when performing different tasks, and find clues that can help interpret the user's intention. Among them, visual evoked-potential (VEP) and event-related potential (ERP) implies many brain wave features are related to brain activity and function. The independent component analysis can effectively separate the electromyographic signal (EMG) generated by blinking and background electromagnetic interference. With the development of machine learning technology, algorithms that can identify key EEG waveforms can more accurately analyze EEG signals and understand the user's will.

Three elements of the brain-computer interface: Signal Acquisition, Feature Extraction, Translation Algorithm.

Applications of brain-computer interface:

  • Assist in the loss of physical function due to injury or disease, assist in communication or replace wheelchair operation.
  • Restore the function of the body. Such as stimulating the muscles and nerves of paralyzed patients to restore bladder function.
  • Improve physical function. Such as the rehabilitation of stroke patients.
  •  Increase mental function. Such as detecting stress or improving poor concentration of students by detecting their brain activity and monitoring their mental state.
  • As a research tool for brain function.

Industries where the brain-computer interface is applied include communication and control for health and neurofeedback, assistive technology and home control, security and protection, entertainment and games, finance, scientific research, etc. It is expected that with the development of this technology, in addition to enhancing the value of the IT industry, it can help improve and enhance medical care services.

Published by Feb 18, 2022 Source :highscope

Further reading

You might also be interested in ...

Headline
Knowledge
What is Hardware? Classification of Hardware Accessories
Hardware can be seen everywhere and used everywhere in our lives, especially on some large and small machines, many parts of which are made of hardware. It can be used separately or as an auxiliary, such as hardware tools, hardware parts, daily hardware, construction hardware and security supplies, etc. Let's learn what hardware includes and the classification of hardware accessories.
Headline
Knowledge
What is An Injection Molding Machine? What are The Types?
Injection molding machine, also known as injection machine, is a special machine for manufacturing plastic products. There are many types of injection molding machines, which can usually be distinguished by the following methods: driving mode, mold opening and closing direction, applicable raw materials, mold clamping structure, and injection structure.
Headline
Knowledge
Charging Principle, Method and Introduction of Charging Station for Electric Vehicles
A charging station is a device that supplies electric energy for electric vehicles (including pure electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles), similar to the gas station used in fuel vehicles. How does it work and in what scenarios? Let’s find out.
Headline
Knowledge
What is Quick Die Change System (SMED)?
Quick Die Change (SMED), or 10-minute die change, is a set of useful techniques for dealing with multiple batches of small quantities and improving the rapid response capability of the production system and is a type of lean production method. The point is to convert internal jobs to external job conversions as much as possible.
Headline
Knowledge
Methods and Practical Application Scenarios of Industrial Calibration
Calibration is a quantitative comparison. Check the reading of the instrument, it is achieved by measuring the actual standard part, and the deviation between the measured value and the actual value is corrected.
Headline
Knowledge
What is the Grinding Process and Grinding Wheel?
A grinding wheel is a tool for grinding. It is composed of coarse-grained abrasive compounds bonded together. After forming a solid round object, grinding and abrasive processing can be performed on a grinding machine. Grinding is a commonly used processing method, which can obtain higher workpiece density and surface quality. Different grinding methods will produce different grinding defects. The most influential factor is the grinding wheel.
Headline
Knowledge
What is Knurling?
Knurling is a mechanical process of rolling patterns on the knobs of metal products or other working surfaces, mainly for anti-skid purposes. And used in many hardware, mold, and mechanical components.
Headline
Knowledge
Knowledge of Gear and Gear Transmission in A Mechanical Design!
Gears are mechanical parts with teeth that can mesh with each other to transmit motion and power in mechanical transmission. Gear transmissions stand out due to the accuracy of their gear ratio, which makes them perfect for precision machinery.
Headline
Knowledge
What is the Waste Plastic Granulation Process?
The waste plastic granulation process is the process of metering, bonding, plasticizing and granulating polymer resin and various waste plastics and additives into granular plastics, which are semi-finished products in the plastic molding processing industry.
Headline
Knowledge
Analysis of the Advantages and Disadvantages of Electric Tools and Pneumatic Tools!
When it comes to maintenance tools, many people strongly recommend electric tools, which have many varieties, easy to use, and low prices, especially suitable for home use. But you know what? There is also a powerful and efficient tool in the tool industry, that is, pneumatic tools. So, what is the difference between the two, and how should one choose? Let this article tell you now.
Headline
Knowledge
What is the Granulation Process and its Function?
With the wide application of plastic products, the disposal of waste plastics has become a difficult problem and an urgent issue that needs to be solved in global environmental pollution. Therefore, it can be partially reused through the plastic granulation process.
Headline
Knowledge
Understand Passive Components in Minutes
Any electronic product must use two components, so-called "active components" and "passive components". "Active components", as the name suggests, are components that can actively perform operations independently, while "passive components" play a passive protective role. When an electronic product changes current or voltage, the role of "passive components" is to protect "active components" by means of low voltage, filtering noise, etc. To put it simply, "passive components" with low unit prices are always ready to protect the safety of "active components" with high unit prices.
Agree