What is the Classification and Function of Tooling Fixtures and Jigs?
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What is the Classification and Function of Tooling Fixtures and Jigs?

Application of Fixture is a processing device used to fasten the workpiece quickly during processing, so that the machine tool, the tool, and the workpiece maintain the correct relative position. Tooling and fixtures are an indispensable part of machining. Driven by the development of machine tool technology in the direction of high speed, high efficiency, precision, compounding, intelligence, and environmental protection, fixture technology is moving towards high-precision, high-efficiency, modular, combination, universal, economic direction.
Published: Jun 14, 2022
What is the Classification and Function of Tooling Fixtures and Jigs?

What are Jigs and Fixtures?

The fixture has the function of positioning and clamping the workpiece. The function of the jig is basically to guide, position, and clamp the workpiece at least. Clamping the workpiece refers to positioning and clamping the workpiece on the machine tool or in the fixture.

The addition of the tool guide function is the jig. The jig with tool guiding function is used for direct drilling when the surface of the drilled hole is not perpendicular to the drill bit, and the drill bit needs to be guided by the drill bit guide sleeve. The NC machining fixture can already omit the guiding function of the tool, so only the positioning and clamping functions are available.

What is the Application of Fixtures?

The fixture is a processing device used to quickly fasten the workpiece during processing, so that the machine tool, the tool, and the workpiece maintain the correct relative position. Tooling and fixtures are an indispensable part of machining. Driven by the development of machine tool technology in the direction of high speed, high efficiency, precision, compounding, intelligence, and environmental protection, fixture technology is moving towards high-precision, high-efficiency, modular, combination, universal, economic direction.

In a broad sense, any process in the process, the device used to install the workpiece quickly, easily, and safely can be called a fixture. Such as welding fixtures, inspection fixtures, assembly fixtures, machine tool fixtures, etc. Among them, machine tool fixtures are the most common, often referred to as fixtures.

When machining the workpiece on the machine tool, to make the surface of the workpiece meet the technical requirements of the size, geometry, and mutual positional accuracy with other surfaces specified in the drawing, the workpiece must be installed (positioned) and clamped before machining. The application of machine tool fixtures is conducive to ensuring the machining accuracy of workpieces and stabilizing product quality. Conducive to improving labor productivity and reducing costs. It is beneficial to improve the working conditions of workers and ensure safe production. It is beneficial to expand the technological scope of the machine tool and realize the multi-purpose of one machine.

The fixture usually consists of a positioning element (determining the correct position of the workpiece in the fixture), a clamping device, a tool setting guide element (determining the relative position of the tool and the workpiece or guiding the tool direction), an indexing device (enabling the workpiece to be installed in one installation). Complete the processing of several stations, including rotary indexing device and linear moving indexing device), connecting elements and clamping body (clamp base), and other components. The use of fixtures is also very high in electronic manufacturers. To improve production efficiency and product quality in production, tooling fixtures are often used in the middle and later stages of production for functional testing or auxiliary assembly (which can be assembled with a fixed shape and height, etc.).

Extended Functions of Fixtures and Jigs:

  • Fixtures should be able to prevent operator error and instability.
  • The jig should make the pick-and-place action of the workpiece smooth.
  • The jig should make the chips easy to remove.
  • The fixture should consider the safety of operation.

What are the Common Types of Fixtures?

Lathe Fixtures, Milling Machine Fixtures, Drilling Fixtures, Welding Fixtures, Grinder Fixtures, Assembly Fixtures, Specially Designed Collets, etc.

What are the Classification Methods of Fixtures and Jigs?

  1. Distinguish by processing method:
    The types of machining can be roughly divided into turning, milling, drilling, tapping, electrical discharge machining, grinding, gear machining, and other processing methods. Fixtures other than machining have different applications such as assembly and inspection.
  2. Distinguish by fixture type and production method:
    • Universal fixtures: standard fixtures such as vices, three-jaw chucks, and universal fixture sets are more suitable for regular-shaped workpieces, such as square or round.
    • Combined fixture: a fixture composed of a standard substrate, positioning parts, and clamping parts, which can be disassembled for other workpieces, and the fixture can be quickly completed for clamping irregular-shaped workpieces.
    • Special Fixtures: Special fixtures designed for individual workpieces.
  3. Distinguish by the source of gripping force:
    • Manual clamps: Various clamps that use the operator to take tools to lock the workpiece, such as clamping with screws or using quick clamps to clamp the workpiece are all manual clamps.
    • Automatic fixture: The fixture that can automatically lock the workpiece using electromagnetic force, air pressure, oil pressure, spring force, etc.

Clamping Planning and Design Procedures for Fixtures:

In the design process, the CAD system is an efficient drawing tool, and many companies can provide drawings of the fixture components for use in the design, saving drawing time.

The Basic Steps of Fixture Design -
  • Step 1: Clarify the fixture design requirements.
  • Step 2: Collect various relevant information.
  • Step 3: Determine the type of fixture.
  • Step 4: Evaluate the cost of the fixture.
  • Step 5: The final design process of the fixture - drawing, selection of parts, and processing planning.
Published by Jun 14, 2022 Source :jimmore

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