Smart manufacturing utilizes advanced manufacturing technology and provides solutions through AI, the Internet of Things, big data, cloud, edge computing, and other technologies to substitute the production process into an intelligent manufacturing model and customize products according to customer needs.
The Industrial Model of Industry 4.0:
Smart factories can quickly switch processes and mass-produce customized or even unique products at the same cost. Corporate branding or manufacturing scale is no longer a key advantage. The traditional supply chain is completely broken, and innovative enterprises occupy the market with revolutionary smart products and intelligent rapidity and win the market competition with subversive business models.
The Development Background of Industry 4.0:
The rise and popularization of mechanization, electric power, and information technology (IT) have triggered three industrial revolutions successively, and have promoted major progress in the development of human civilization. The development of data communication technology and the breakthrough of computer computing power have driven the trend of digitalization, which has triggered the fourth industrial revolution, also known as Industry 4.0. Industry 4.0 not only changes the way of production of goods or the provision of services through smart factories and smart production, but each industry will inevitably develop its own unique Industry 4.0 according to the characteristics and needs of the industry.
Key Applications for Industry 4.0
Cyber-Physical System (CPS):
Cyber-Physical System (CPS) is the key technology of Industry 4.0. Through computers, Sensors, and the use of network technology to connect various devices, machines, and digital systems. Through the communication and interaction between them, the virtual and physical worlds are seamlessly integrated. CPS also embeds computing and communication into physical operation programs, adding new intelligence and capabilities to physical systems, achieving real-time perception, dynamic control, and providing intelligent instant messaging services. Therefore, many companies have begun to deploy in the direction of CPS, and Factory 4.0 has also responded and is life. The concept of CPS has been implemented in many industrial fields, such as online and offline systems (O2O) in the retail industry, omnichannel marketing, smart home, transportation, security, environmental control, process control, and other fields, bringing economic, political and social benefits. for a comprehensive change.
Intelligent robots and machines:
Robots have gradually replaced human labor. Industrial robots of various types and different purposes have not only grown rapidly in number but have also gradually become more intelligent, able to adapt, communicate and interact, gradually replacing human workflows in certain fields. With human-machine interfaces equipped with smart sensor capabilities and humans working together to perform tasks, there will still be a significant increase in production capacity, which will have a huge impact on the cost structure of factories and the required skills.
When building a new factory or producing new products in an existing factory area, Industry 4.0 will use virtual factories or products to prepare for physical mass production. If any process is simulated and confirmed in the virtual environment first, it represents the final the solution is ready, all software, parameters, and numerical matrices have been uploaded to the physical machine that controls mass production, and the physical correspondence has also been completed, so the virtual factory can be used for production design, and it is easy to use 3D technology. Interaction visualization of worker and machine.
The factory of the future will generate vast amounts of data, which will be stored, processed, and analyzed. In the environment of Industry 4.0, CPS can be further developed to manage and make good use of massive data, use the interconnectivity of machines to achieve the goal of machine intelligence, flexibility, and automatic adjustment, and even integrate CPS into industrial practice mass production, logistics and service. This will transform today's factories into highly competitive and economically promising Industry 4.0 factories. At the same time, the integration of massive data and cloud computing is bound to lead to a new type of information application model, thereby bringing about intelligent innovation.
Today's IT systems have become the core of production systems. In the context of Industry 4.0, IT systems use the cloud, mobile devices, and big data to collaborate and collaborate. These IT systems will be more closely linked between the sub-systems, processing flows, interfacing internal and external modules, and network connections between suppliers and customers. Its complexity has also increased to form an intelligent supply chain, which has been transformed into a super-large information system that connects enterprises across regions. In the factory, the IT system will follow a clear standard specification, integrate software and hardware, storage equipment, and peripheral systems, and connect to form a Cyber-Physical Production System (CPPS), which has the ability of real-time control and can be based on product characteristics and process equipment. The sensing elements interact with each other, and with different types of production processes, the machine operation program can be changed flexibly, so that the production process can be adjusted in a short time, avoiding downtime caused by process changes, thereby improving the availability of the overall equipment, thereby greatly improving production. efficiency.
The reason why artificial intelligence technology has become the core technology of smart manufacturing lies in that it can automatically extract key features and regular patterns in manufacturing from a large amount of raw data, and then learn the mistakes that have occurred in the past to make predictions and warnings in advance. Not only can it reduce downtime and improve process efficiency, but it can also be adjusted according to the production line promptly. Artificial intelligence refers to the intelligence displayed by human-made machines, including natural language processing, planning, and learning, and reasoning and problem-solving.
- Obtaining data: Collect a large amount of required data through sensors such as temperature, humidity, and camera.
- Data preprocessing: The quality of the data will affect the effect of model learning. If the learning has noisy data, it will inevitably affect the prediction results. Therefore, it is necessary to preprocess the data first to process the collected data into clean data.
- Model establishment: The artificial intelligence model is composed of neural, which imitates the structure and function of a biological neural network to generate a mathematical model, which is used for function evaluation and operation. The model structure can be divided into the input layer, hidden layer, and output layer. Each neuron between layers is connected, and the importance of the connection between neurons is determined by weight. The operation of the nerve is through the active function, and its purpose is to introduce a nonlinear function to avoid the linear relationship between the input and the output.
- Prediction: After continuous feature extraction through the model, the unseen data can be numerically predicted or classified. Usually, the prediction stage is faster than the training stage.
Impact of Industry 4.0:
The scope of Industry 4.0 is quite broad, including the technical concepts of M2M and the Internet of Things (IoT). In addition, the rapid development of digital and network technology has also brought a huge impact on various industries, making corporate strategies and business models increasingly challenging. As far as manufacturing is concerned, whether it is a unique product with mass production demand (large-scale customization) or a unique customized product (small-volume variety), there is a chance to achieve the same level as general mass-produced standard products. cost and maintain overall production capacity.
Although intelligent production is emphasized in the era of Industry 4.0, human beings are still of great importance, because the role of human beings will shift to using new thinking to define the rules and goals of mass production for products, systems, and mass production equipment, and carry out related planning, this is an area of work that cannot be replaced by the CPS system.
In smart factories, the functions of workers in the past will also be transformed from traditional machine operators to those who control, adjust, and make decisions on production programs to optimize the production process. With the increase in knowledge-intensive output, the professional degree of labor required by smart chemical factories will increase, and their cross-industry and cross-field capabilities will also need to be improved. Therefore, for enterprises, the cultivation of human resources will be the key.