E-bikes have become a topic of concern in the industry in recent years, and Taiwan's E-bike exports have shown year-on-year growth in terms of shipments and export value.
The Core Device of Power-assisted Bicycles and Electric Bicycles:
The four core devices of electric-assisted bicycles and electric bicycles include motors, controllers, batteries, and chargers. The quality of the four core devices is the most important key to making electric bicycles perform optimally.
- Motor (electric motor):
Old-type motors are mostly installed at the bottom bracket of bicycles. At present, some motors are designed to be combined with the front and rear axles, and their shape and volume are much smaller than the old-type motors. For safety considerations, the motor power has the following regulations:
- The maximum output power of electric-assisted bicycle motors is less than 400 watts.
- The maximum output power of the electric bicycle motor is less than 1000 watts.
Responsible for controlling the connection between the battery and the motor, and controlling the output of the motor under different speeds and road conditions. When the brake signal input line or Overspeed signal input line is abnormal, it is detected through the detection device in the controller.
- Output speed the maximum assisting speed of an electric-assisted bicycle and the maximum driving speed of an electric bicycle with a load of 80 kg are below 25 km/h.
- Power output the motor of an electric-assisted bicycle should stop power output within three seconds after the pedal is stopped, and the motor should not drive when the pedal is reversed.
- Power cut-off at Overspeed If the driving speed exceeds 25 km/h, the motor power supply of the electric assist bicycle should be able to automatically suspend the power supply within three seconds.
- Brake power cut-off After the brake action is generated, the motor power supply of the electric assist bicycle and electric bicycle must be automatically cut off within three seconds.
- Failure to power off If the brake signal input line of the control system is short-circuited or disconnected, the motor power supply of the electrically assisted bicycle and electric bicycle should be automatically cut off within three seconds. If the Overspeed signal input line of the control system is short-circuited or disconnected, the motor power supply of the electric-assisted bicycle should be automatically cut off within three seconds.
Batteries currently on the market are divided into lead-acid batteries, nickel metal hydride batteries, and lithium batteries. Among them, the lead-acid battery has a relatively high market share due to its mature production technology and relatively cheaper market price than other batteries. However, the storage capacity per unit volume is not good, resulting in slightly insufficient battery life. Lithium batteries have better storage capacity than other batteries and are lighter than lead-acid batteries. Although they are more expensive, lithium batteries have gradually become mainstream.
The weight of electric-assisted bicycles and electric bicycles is higher than that of ordinary bicycles, it can reach up to 40 kg. Therefore, the battery is designed to be detachable. If you want to charge, you only need to remove the battery charging. After the charging is completed, you can install it on the vehicle for use.
Challenges to Overcome for Electric-assisted Bicycles and e-bikes:
The rising international oil price, coupled with the abnormal climate caused by the greenhouse effect, the awareness of environmental protection is increasing day by day, and green energy has become the most concerned topic. The "green transportation revolution" triggered by electric bicycles will rapidly expand to the world, and governments of various countries have also begun to add bicycle lanes and related public facilities. With the advantages of low noise, low energy consumption, low pollution, and convenience, electric bicycles have become a green means of transportation vigorously promoted internationally. With the development of society and the improvement of people's living standards, as well as the rise of environmental protection awareness, electric bicycles are easy to operate, comfortable to ride, labor-saving, moderate in speed, safe and reliable, and are ideal means of transportation for short-distance transportation, but there are still some problems still to be overcome:
- Insufficient battery life:
Considering the round-trip distance, the average distance used by electric bicycles is only a radius of 30 kilometers. However, due to insufficient battery life, if you need to go to a farther place, you can only use other means of transportation.
- The charging station is not popular and the charging time is too long:
Many cities have not yet planned to charge stations, often because they cannot find charging stations, which limits the range of use of electric bicycles, and because the charging time is too long, if they are urgently needed, they can only use other means of transportation. As far as the current technology is concerned, under the foundation of the traditional bicycle industry, Taiwan has made the related technologies of electric bicycles increasingly refined, coupled with the mass production and refinement of the core devices (motors, controllers, batteries, chargers) of electric bicycles. The technology is also very advanced, so there is almost no need to rely on foreign component imports. Therefore, many domestic companies have invested in the research and development and production of electric bicycles, and have successively launched their brands, which are exported to countries around the world. On the other hand, when the technology of the battery industry becomes more mature (increased battery life, shortened charging time, and reduced battery weight), the motor tends to be miniaturized, the power is increased, and the government plans supporting measures, such as solutions, will be able to overcome the above problems. Electric bicycles push to another peak, making life more convenient.
- The supply chain hopes to focus on vertical and horizontal integration:
From the perspective of straight-line deepening of the same industry and horizontal extension of different industries, from cross-regional manufacturing movement and supply chain connection to combining IT and electric energy development technology, are the future development strategies of the bicycle industry.
In the future, the E-Bike design will develop in three aspects, including new materials, new processes, new functions, etc., and even new consumer groups, which are the focus of discussion. In the future, the car body will combine body sensor detection, Internet of Things, navigation, safety protection, etc., through the car body, accessories, clothing, etc., to connect people and bicycles more closely. In the future, can Taiwan's bicycle industry continue to take advantage of the electric heat, increase kinetic energy, combine different industries, integrate upstream and downstream, and use electricity to promote future growth momentum?