Optical fiber computer technology then entered the field of machinery, with applications in passive components, light guide plates, vehicles, batteries, biotechnology, and other industries.
What is Fiber?
Optical fiber is the abbreviation of optical fiber, which is a small and soft transmission medium composed of a group of optical fibers for propagating light beams. It is a soft filament drawn from quartz glass or special plastic, with a diameter of several μm (several times the wavelength of light) to 120 μm. Like water flowing through a tube, light energy travels internally along this filament. The structure of an optical fiber generally consists of three parts: coating, cladding, and core.
The optical fiber manufacturing process determines the mechanical strength, transmission characteristics, and service life of the optical fiber, which is very important to ensure the quality of the optical fiber. The manufacture of communication optical fiber is divided into two processes: rod making and wire drawing.
What are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Fiber Optic Transmission?
Advantages of Fiber Optic Transmission:
Optical fiber transmission line, designed for long-distance transmission, high-definition audio and video transmission, data network, and telecommunications. For internet providers in most advanced countries, fiber is the transmission medium of choice.
Disadvantages of Fiber Optic Transmission:
- Larger bandwidth: Fiber optic cable has a larger bandwidth and can transmit a larger amount of data than copper wires of the same diameter. BDP (bandwidth-distance product) is used to compare the ability to transmit the amount of data. A transmission medium with a higher BDP has a longer transmission distance when transmitting data with the same bandwidth. The higher the BDP, the faster and farther the uncompressed image can be transmitted.
- Longer distances and faster speeds: As far as photons and electrons are concerned, the light source of the fiber optic line travels at about two-thirds the speed of light, while the electrons in the copper line can only reach one percent of this speed at most. This speed advantage has a great impact on the transmission distance. Although copper wires are mostly limited to a standard distance of 100 meters, fiber optic wires can transmit long distances with high bandwidth at small diameters.
- Higher resistance: Unlike copper wire transmission, fiber optic wire does not contain metal components. Therefore, it is immune to Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) and Radio Frequency Interference (RFI). In addition, when there are extreme changes in temperature and humidity, the optical fiber cable is not affected, but the temperature and humidity changes will affect the transmission performance of the copper cable.
- Higher security: Since the optical fiber cable does not process electronic signals, it is impossible to detect any data signals being transmitted at the remote end, but physical access can be detected through monitoring. This security makes fiber the preferred transmission method for governments and the banking industry. In terms of safety, fiber optic cables are also not at risk in spark-hazardous environments, such as chemical plants and oil refineries.
Aside from the extra cost, fiber optic does have some drawbacks. Optical fibers are made of glass and are more delicate than copper wires and require more careful handling. Unlike copper wire, it is easier to splice, so installation is more difficult. In addition, data communication is not completely in the optical domain, so the conversion of electricity from light to electricity needs to be repeated. As the data transmission distance increases, the light source also diverges. While there are two wavelengths (1310 nm and 1550 nm) that overcome light source divergence and have lower attenuation, the laser spectral lines at this wavelength are narrower, more difficult to manufacture and cost more with distance.
What is Optical Fiber Transmission Technology?
Fiber optic lines use light pulses to transmit signals through glass fibers. For this type of fiber optic network, ATEN offers a variety of fiber optic extender solutions, including Pro AV and KVM switches.
Fiber optic cable construction:
An optical fiber core, consisting of one or more high-refractive-index glass, is the path for light signals to travel. The surface layer of the wire core is covered with low-refractive-index glass to ensure that the light source travels forward rather than outward. Finally, these wires have a buffer layer, come in a variety of thicknesses, and have a colored jacket for easy identification.
Multimode and Single Mode Fibers:
There are two types of fiber optic lines - single-mode and multimode. Single-mode line, which can support longer distances and higher speeds. Because it has a smaller core and operates at a higher wavelength, it can generate a more stable optical signal. The single-mode core is 8-9 microns compared to 50/62.5 microns for multi-mode, in addition, single-mode wavelengths are 1310 nm/1550 nm, while multi-mode wavelengths are 650-850 nm.
Fiber Optic Cable Classification:
Multimode fiber optic cables with core diameters of 50 and 62.5 microns are classified as OM1, OM2, OM3, and OM4. OM1 and OM2 typically use an LED light source with an orange overlay, while OM3 and OM4 typically use an 850 nm VCSEL with an aqua overlay. Single-mode fiber optic cable, divided into OS1 and OS2, is mainly distinguished by the wire structure, not the fiber specification. The color of the coating of the fiber optic cable will vary depending on the type of composite cable and whether it is used indoors or outdoors.
Light Source/ Laser Type:
For fiber optic transmission, LEDs and lasers can be used. In terms of light sources, although all wavelengths are close to visible infrared. While single-mode fiber lines use long-wavelength lasers as light sources, multi-mode fiber lines use shorter-wavelength lasers and LEDs. Vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) are mainly used for multimode communication connections at 850 nm. Fabry-Pérot lasers (FP) are used for transmission distances less than 20 km. Single-mode wavelengths of 1310 nm and 1550 nm with rates less than 1.25G. Decentralized feedback lasers (DFBs), typically use the same modality and wavelength as FP but deliver high-speed long-distance transmissions up to 40 km.
Optical Fiber Computer Technology Integrates Digital Technology with Machinery to Accelerate the Transformation of the Manufacturing Industry:
To keep factories moving forward, the industry is starting to look at the idea of using high-speed fiber to connect manufacturing facilities. Through the optical fiber network, remote manufacturing operations can be connected to improve production optimization and supply chain management. Industrial data is increasing exponentially, and high-speed networks will be required for seamless, secure, and reliable data transfer in the future.
The introduction of the high-speed network in the manufacturing plant realizes M2M communication and real-time monitoring. Advanced manufacturing and its demand for monitoring active systems have realized high-speed networks, and the demand for huge amounts of data has pushed this demand to a new height. In addition, manufacturers want the network to be not just a single facility but often deployed in different production locations. This requires a whole new kind of long-distance high-speed internet.
Facing the future, "Mechanics + Electronics" must be extended to software, AI, smart manufacturing, and other fields. With the rise of the digital wave, machinery combined with AI is enough to improve efficiency. It can improve fault tolerance and reduce the probability of false positives, reducing the probability of equipment downtime. Reduce the impact of the operator's human error, and reduce the probability of scrapping the whole batch. Analyze the wear and tear of the mold, and predict the life of the mold. Provide online maintenance basis through data analysis, and play the role of preventive maintenance. In the future, AI can even help the machine automatically adjust to the best processing conditions.
Application Solutions of Industrial Control Optical Fiber:
- Industry 4.0 - Smart Manufacturing:
With the rapid development of networking and intelligence, the industrial structure is changing. The impact of Industry 4.0 has been reflected in the manufacturing industry, and production enterprises will face more and more challenges. Businesses need to increase productivity, meet environmental requirements, and reduce operating costs to succeed in today's competitive global marketplace.
The concept of Industry 4.0 is not limited to the production line but is also closely connected with the Internet of Things (IoT) technology, creating another opportunity for manufacturing companies to climb the strategic peak. Smart production management systems and automation technologies can help companies meet these challenges and improve industry performance. Intelligent industrial production is the development direction of the future manufacturing industry. It uses Internet of Things technology and monitoring technology to strengthen information management and services, improve production line efficiency and product quality, and optimize production processes.
- Solar Monitoring and Data Acquisition System:
Solar energy is developing rapidly around the world and is an important part of the sustainable development of countries. The photovoltaic power station monitoring system of the solar power station includes real-time monitoring of battery arrays, data buses, inverters, AC and DC power distribution cabinets, solar tracking control systems, and other equipment to ensure that the solar photovoltaic power generation system is completely reliable and stable. The area is divided into several photovoltaic power generation areas, and the information from each area is collected in the monitoring room. The industrial-grade fiber optic switch can adapt to the harsh field environment, the equipment works safely and reliably, and the data transmission is stable.
- Transmission Line Online Monitoring System:
The online monitoring system is an important part of the transmission link of the smart grid, and it is an important way to improve the management level of lean production to realize the condition maintenance management of power transmission and transformation equipment. The monitoring system is equipped with a variety of sensing technologies, wide-area communication technologies, and information processing technologies to realize real-time sensing, monitoring, early warning, analysis, diagnosis, and evaluation of the operating status of various transmission equipment.
- In-car Control and Multimedia System:
Railway (subway) carriage monitoring and multimedia system with high security as the core is a necessary condition for urban internationalization and has become one of the important symbols of urban construction and land development. Subway stations and other places have set up IP surveillance systems to provide camera surveillance services, including monitoring and recording passenger images captured by IP cameras in each car. Additionally, passengers can enjoy their favorite TVs, videos, and commercials on the go.
- Railway Dispatching System:
The speed, reliability, and safety of industrial Ethernet solutions in traffic automation are important factors for the cost-effective operation of railway dispatching systems. Modern railway dispatching systems consist of many complex distributed subsystems that require centralized monitoring.
- Safe City:
The construction of an urban video surveillance system is an important foundation for realizing urban security and stability. With the maturity of high-definition monitoring technology, it has become an inevitable trend for safe city construction. The urban public security monitoring system platform is divided into the monitoring center and the front-end control point. According to the different levels, the monitoring center is divided into a total control center (ie a monitoring center) and a sub-control center (including secondary and tertiary monitoring centers). The branch center is in the police station and within the jurisdiction of the county. The control center is in the municipal area. In the process of video signal transmission, the transmission is stable and the bandwidth is sufficient, which can adapt to the outdoor environment.
- Road Intelligent Video Surveillance System:
In the road intelligent video monitoring system, the distance between monitoring devices is long, and the outdoor environment is harsh. It can be applied to high-performance industrial fiber optic ethernet products, featuring industrial-grade design, wide temperature, and high protection level.
- Smart Parking System:
With the development of society and economy and the rapid increase in the number of various types of vehicles in cities, intelligent parking management technology has gradually matured. The intelligent parking system is developing in the direction of large-scale and intelligent. In response to the needs of modern large-scale parking lot management, an intelligent parking lot management system is introduced. Compared with traditional management, it can improve the management level of parking lots and further improve the utilization rate and economic benefits of large-scale parking lots.