What is Nanotechnology?

What is Nanotechnology?

The so-called nanotechnology refers to the measurement, simulation, manipulation, and production of materials less than 100 nanometers.
Published: Jan 04, 2022
What is Nanotechnology?

What is nanotechnology?

Nano is a science and technology that studies materials, structures, and properties with at least one-dimensional size in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. It is called nanoscience.

Unlike new technologies such as semiconductors, optoelectronics, and biotechnology, nanotechnology can plan a unified application field. On the contrary, the emergence of nanotechnology has broken through the technical limitations of various fields. Generally speaking, since the matter at the nanometer size will show completely different physical, chemical, or biological properties from the normal state, at the nanometer scale, small substances with new functions or novel physical properties are produced. With this technology of designing and making new components, instruments, or systems based on material in nanotechnology.

Benefits of nanotechnology:

The use of nanotechnology can break through certain technical limitations. For example, the use of nanotechnology to produce quantum wires without resistance can reduce the heating and energy consumption of high-density and high-capacity electronic components. Or mixing specific impurities in the alloy to deliberately create nanocrystal defects, regardless of strength, plasticity, and corrosion resistance, which will greatly increase the use of nanofilms and composite materials.

In addition, with the knowledge of nanoscience, many nanoproducts have been developed and manufactured: by the nanoization of gold particles, a nano-gold catalyst with high catalytic ability can be produced, and gold can also be used to display in the nano size. With the characteristics of different colors, nano-gold particle dyes can be produced; or nano-sunscreen agents that improve the efficiency of UV isolation after the use of sunscreen materials are nano-sized; use the principle of surface tension between nano-particles and liquid to make nano-particles that are not afraid of dirt rice paint; applying molecular forces and chip manufacturing technology to develop biochips that can quickly detect diseases.

In addition to creating more technological breakthroughs, nanotechnology also creates more convenience in life with nano products. Nanomaterials produced by nanotechnology have many advantages, such as being lightweight, small size, low energy consumption, and using fewer materials to achieve better physical, chemical, and functional properties, and reduce destroy the environment and achieve the goal of sustainable development of mankind.

The development of nanotechnology:

From technology development to industrial applications, nanotechnology has long become the mainstream of the international market. Since the 1970s, scientists in advanced technology research countries such as Europe, the United States, and Japan have invested in nanotechnology research, but the rapid development of nanotechnology has been at the end of 1990, the U.S. government announced the integration of industry, government, and academic research units to fully invest in the research and development of nanotechnology. Germany established the Nanotechnology Competence Center in 1998 to focus on nanotechnology development; Japan began to invest in nanotechnology research in 1991, and South Korea also began to invest in nanotechnology research and development, facility construction, and talent cultivation in the field of nanotechnology in 2001.

After 2010, the development methods of various countries invested in nanotechnology began to change and adjust. In addition to the early development of nanotechnology, it gradually transformed into various application fields (such as defense, medicine, aerospace, etc.). Mi technology influences the importance of future technological development in this field. Investing has made the development of nanotechnology more and more specialized and detailed.

What are the nano application technologies?

  • Nanocrystalline materials:
    When the microstructure of a substance is miniaturized, the ratio of surface atoms to internal material atoms increases significantly, and the atomic behavior at the interface has a decisive influence on the properties of the substance. For example, nano-metal crystalline particles exhibit better strength, hardness, magnetic properties, surface catalytic properties, etc.; and ceramic materials with nano-crystals have higher ductility than ordinary ceramic materials, and are less likely to be brittle characteristics.
    Due to the increase in strength of nanocrystalline metals, considerable application opportunities lie in structural materials in the automotive, aerospace, and construction industries, such as the use of new nanocrystalline steels in their automotive products. Nanocrystalline material films can increase surface hardness, reduce friction, improve heat resistance, chemical resistance, etc., and can be used in mechanical systems such as automobiles and aerospace industries. In biomedicine, nanocrystalline silver has antibacterial effects, while nanocrystalline titanium can be used in artificial joints.
  • Nano powder:
    Nano powder is one of the most diverse and widely used types of nanomaterials. Nano powder manufacturing processes include solid-phase mechanical grinding, liquid-phase precipitation, sol-gel, chemical vapor deposition, etc.
  • Nano porous materials:
    Such materials refer to porous materials with a pore size of fewer than 100 nanometers, including biofilms and zeolites that have already existed in nature, and their high surface area is usually as high as 102 m2/g, which makes them have high catalytic and adsorption effects. Nano porous materials can be prepared by sol-gel method, photolithography, ion beam, and other methods; nano porous films can be coated with nanotube structure.
    Nano porous materials can be used to develop improved catalysts for applications in the petrochemical industry. Using the pore structure, nano porous materials have considerable application potential in membrane filtration system purification/separation, drug delivery implantation devices, and gene sequencing, medical testing, etc. Aerosol is a light-weight and good thermal insulation material; nano porous film can be used as a low-dielectric material in the semiconductor industry; nano porous silicon has special luminescence properties and can be used as a material for solid-state lasers; nano porous carbon has high capacitance features, can be applied to the development of batteries such as laptops, mobile phones, and even electric vehicles.
  • Nanofiber and nanowires:
    Nanofibers here refer to relatively short fibers, including carbon fibrils, man-made polymer fibers, and alumina fibers. Electrospinning is a method of manufacturing man-made polymer nanofibers, which can be combined with nanoparticles or nanotubes. Nano cables tend to be inorganic materials, including metals, semiconductors (such as silicon and germanium), and some organic polymers, which are mainly used in electronic engineering. When nano cables are used to construct complex circuit systems, the difficulty that must be challenged lies in the connectivity between the cables.
    Nanofibers can be used for composite materials and surface coating for reinforcement. Electro spun nanofibers have the characteristics of increased strength and high surface area and are suitable as a reaction bed for nano powders in catalytic applications. Nanofibers can be made into fabrics with special properties such as chemical resistance, waterproof and breathable, and anti-fouling. Nanofibers can be used as filter materials and scaffold materials for medical tissue engineering; they also have application potential in the fields of drug delivery media, sensors, and nanomotors; in addition, they can be used to develop flexible photovoltaics by using their high surface area. The special film, and further made into wearable solar cells.
  • Carbon Nanotubes (CNT):
    Carbon nanotubes are tubular materials formed by crimping graphite planes. They have two structures: single-layer and multi-layer structures. Carbon nanotube manufacturing methods include arc discharge, laser evaporation/stripping, chemical vapor deposition, vapor growth, electrolysis, and flame generation methods [source request]. Carbon nanotubes have many special properties, such as high tensile strength (~100Gpa), excellent thermal conductivity, and room temperature superconductivity. Its conductivity varies with different crimping methods. It can be nanowires or nano-semiconductor.

The application industries of nanotechnology:

The global focus of nanotechnology development has gradually evolved from focusing on electronic circuits in the past to industries such as the environment, energy, medicine, and biotechnology.

  1. Environmental industry:
    As various pollutants produced by industrial processes or human activities cause serious environmental pollution and threaten the survival of species on the earth, effective purification solutions are needed to solve them. Therefore, various governments and units have developed nanotechnology applications, such as the development of nano-titanium dioxide concrete for air purification, carbon nanotube nets for water purification, ceramic nanofiber materials, and nanotechnology for purification of water by centrifugal spinning. Rice fiber membranes, nano-iron particles for the treatment of groundwater pollution, nano-sensors for air pollution detection, carbon nano-films for water or solvent filtration, and sanitary sewage treatment nano-films. Through nanoscience, it breaks through the limits of the past products and achieves the purification effect.
  2. Energy industry:
    The development of nanotechnology in the energy industry mainly focuses on energy storage, including the development of nano-silicon-based anodes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries, 3D electrodes for electric vehicles, graphene supercapacitors, zinc oxide electrodes for bio-batteries, and hydrogen detection new nanoproducts such as metal nanoparticle sensors and graphene polymer batteries.
  3. Biotechnology and medical care:
    Nanotechnology in the field of diagnosis and treatment in the field of biotechnology and medical treatment has developed rapidly. It has developed nanotechnology that includes nanogold and lasers to heat treatment of cancer tumors, antibacterial and anti-allergic textiles, nano peptides gels for cell culture, and plants. Nano-coating of the human body and artificial bones, laser heating of nanoparticles for cancer treatment, etc.
    The field of biomedical diagnostics is geared towards detecting, identifying, and quantifying nano-recognition components in human body fluids that can detect diseases early, such as sensors that detect toxins in human sweat.
  4. Electronic semiconductors:
    Electronic semiconductors are the earliest industry to focus on the development of nanotechnology. The continuous miniaturization of the line width of nanocircuits in semiconductor materials is the direction of continuous efforts by world-renowned semiconductor manufacturers. The development of electronic applications also includes silicon nano-films, optical components used in the manufacture of semiconductors, graphene lasers used in optical imaging, self-assembled nanoparticles, microelectronic components and microchips, wireless Equipment and wearable devices, etc.
  5. Textile industry:
    Nanotechnology in the textile industry includes nano environmentally friendly textile process technology, polymer spray antifouling nanotechnology, silica textile waterproof coating technology, textile graphene oxide energy storage technology, etc.

"Sensors", "films", "electronic components" and "textiles" are currently the main applications of nanotechnology.

Nanotechnology will be the solution to energy issues:
  • Nanotechnology applied to water, energy and environment enters mass production: The future challenge of nanotechnology is how to produce nanomaterials that make them reasonably priced. These unique nanomaterials are usually quite expensive due to the slow or complex manufacturing process. How to integrate nanomaterials with excellent functions and performance in the laboratory or prototype stage the mass production of rice technology is the biggest challenge to the popularization of nanotechnology applications in the future.
  • Rapid expansion of applications after commercialization of carbon nanomaterials: In the next few years, the manufacturing technology of carbon nanotubes will make significant progress, especially in terms of purity and structure control, as well as cost reductions due to the economies of scale achieved in mass production. The mass production of carbon nanotubes will enable mechanical engineers to do this. These materials are more commonly used in the fields of automobiles, aerospace, and sporting goods, rapidly expanding the number of applications.
  • Nanotechnology in the field of green energy focuses on continuous improvement of energy conversion efficiency: Nanomaterials and nanostructured surfaces are increasingly used in much-advanced energy storage and conversion. Nanomaterials help to produce and use more energy-efficient products. Nano reaction technology reduces and controls the solid-solid reaction. Thermodynamics can greatly improve the energy storage performance of batteries, supercapacitors, and hydrogen storage materials. In the future, nanotechnology will continue to improve the efficiency of light-to-electricity, electro-to-chemical energy, and energy storage.

Nanotechnology is likely to be an important key to solving the energy, resource, and environmental issues that humans are currently facing, especially the "sensor" used for detection in environmental problems; the separation "membrane" used to solve polluted water "Nano products such as "nanomaterials" used in energy conversion issues are likely to change the appearance and pattern of existing industries in the future.

Published: Jan 04, 2022 Source :nano, Source :ieknet, Source :wikiwand

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