What are Light Industry and Heavy Industry?
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What are Light Industry and Heavy Industry?

Industry determines the scale and level of national economic modernization, plays a leading role in the contemporary world national economy, and is the fundamental guarantee for national economic independence, political independence, and national defense modernization. The industry is divided into two categories: The sector that provides means of production is called heavy industry, and the sector that produces means of consumption is called light industry.
Published: Jun 08, 2022
What are Light Industry and Heavy Industry?

What is the Light Industry?

The light industry refers to industries that mainly provide consumer goods and make hand tools. Internationally, there is not yet a rigorous and unified concept of the light industry.

The light industry is an important part of the national economy. Such as food, paper, household appliances, etc. It is an industrial group covering clothing, food, housing, transportation, use, entertainment, and other consumer fields industry. It has the remarkable characteristics of satisfying domestic demand, exporting export, being an employment pillar, and serving agriculture, rural areas, and farmers.

What are the Types of the Light Industry?

The different raw materials used, can be divided into:
  1. Light industry using agricultural products as raw materials:
    It refers to the light industry that directly or indirectly uses agricultural products as the basic raw materials. Mainly include food manufacturing, beverage manufacturing, tobacco processing, textile, sewing, leather, and fur making, and paper and printing industries.
  2. Light industry using non-agricultural products as raw materials:
    It refers to the light industry that uses industrial products as raw materials. Mainly include cultural and educational sports goods, chemical manufacturing, synthetic fiber manufacturing, daily chemical products, daily glass products, daily metal products, hand tool manufacturing, medical equipment manufacturing, cultural and office machinery manufacturing, and other industries.

Light Industry Plays an Important Role in Economic Development:

  1. Light industry is the source of living and consumption materials for urban and rural residents, and it is directly related to the improvement of urban and rural people's material and cultural life.
  2. Light industry provides some means of production and supporting products for agriculture, heavy industry, and other sectors of the national economy, and serves the development of these sectors.
  3. Light industry is an important source of expanding product exports and exchanging foreign exchange.
  4. Light industry generally has the characteristics of less investment, short construction period, fast capital turnover, and more accumulation, and is an important source of national fiscal revenue.
  5. Many light industries are labor-intensive industries, which are conducive to providing many labor employment opportunities.

What is the Heavy Industry?

Heavy industry is the symmetry of the light industry and refers to the industry that provides the means of production for various sectors of the national economy. The development scale and technical level of a country's heavy industry is an important symbol of its national strength. The industrial sectors that belong to the heavy industry include the iron and steel industry, non-ferrous metallurgy industry, and metal material industry.

The standard for light and heavy industries is to call the sectors that provide means of production heavy industry and the sectors that produce means of consumption light industry. The above two classification principles are different. The industrial system mainly consists of manufacturing, electronic and electrical machinery industry, and chemical industry. Including metallurgy, machinery, energy (electricity, oil, coal, natural gas, etc.), chemistry, building materials, and other industries, it is a basic industry that provides technical equipment, power, and raw materials for various sectors of the national economy. It provides raw materials, fuel, power, technical equipment, and other labor materials and labor objects for all sectors of the national economy (including industry itself), and is the material basis for realizing social reproduction and expanding reproduction. The development scale and technical level of a country's heavy industry is an important symbol of its national strength.

The products of heavy industry are the material basis for realizing socially expanded reproduction. Under the conditions of continuous technological progress, in terms of the developmental relationship between the various material production sectors in society, the growth rate of heavy industry is generally faster than that of light industry and agriculture. This is a general law of priority growth in the production of means of production. However, the development of the heavy industry cannot but be constrained by the development of light industry and agriculture, because the development of the heavy industry is inseparable from light industry and agriculture providing consumer goods, especially light industry and agriculture providing raw materials, capital, and the broad market. Therefore, when arranging the development scale and speed of the heavy industry, the principle of coordinated development of the two major departments should be followed, and needs and possibilities should be combined for a comprehensive balance.

What are the divisions of heavy industry?

In the past industrial economics, industries were often divided into light and heavy industries according to the relative weight per unit volume of products. The heavy industry is the heavy industry, and the light industry is light. The industrial sectors that belong to the heavy industry include the iron and steel industry, metallurgy industry, metal material industry, and machinery industry. In the development of modern industry, the chemical industry occupies a very prominent position. Therefore, in the industrial classification of the industrial structure, the chemical industry is often independent and side by side with the light and heavy industries. The industrial structure consists of three major parts: light industry, heavy industry, and chemical industry. The heavy industry and the chemical industry can be put together and collectively called the heavy chemical industry.

Heavy industry can be divided into the following according to the nature of production and product use:
  1. The mining (cutting) industry refers to the mining of natural resources, including oil, natural gas mining, coal mining, metal mining, non-metal mining, and timber logging.
  2. The raw material industry refers to the industry that provides basic materials, power, and fuel to various sectors of the national economy. Including ferrous and non-ferrous metal smelting and processing, coking and coke, chemicals, chemical raw materials, cement, wood-based panels and power, petroleum and coal processing, glass fiber raw materials, sawn timber, and wood-based panel industries and other industries.
  3. Processing industry (manufacturing industry) refers to the industry that reprocesses and manufactures industrial raw materials. Including the machinery and equipment manufacturing industry, electronics industry, chemical fertilizer, metal structure, cement products, and other building materials manufacturing industries that equip various sectors of the national economy, as well as the production materials such as fertilizers, pesticides, and other industries that provide agriculture.

Most of the heavy industrial products are used for production, and a small part is used for daily consumption, such as electricity, domestic coal, cars, etc.

Status of Heavy Industry:

Heavy industry is an industrial system based on the energy and raw materials industry, with high-end durable consumer goods, equipment manufacturing, electronics and electrical machinery industry, and chemical industry as the main body. Including metallurgy, machinery, energy (electricity, petroleum, coal, natural gas, etc.), chemistry, building materials, and other industries, it is a basic industry that provides technical equipment, power, and raw materials for various sectors of the national economy. The heavy industry provides raw materials, fuel, power, technical equipment, and other labor materials and labor objects for various sectors of the national economy (including industry itself), and is the material basis for realizing social reproduction and expanding reproduction. The development scale and technical level of a country's heavy industry is an important indicator of its national competitiveness.

Development of Light and Heavy Industry:

The development speed and scale of the light industry are not only determined by the increase in the income of urban and rural residents but also restricted by the scale of labor objects and labor methods provided by agriculture and heavy industry light industry. Therefore, agriculture, light industry, and heavy industry should have a reasonable proportional relationship to promote the smooth development of the entire national economy.

The products of heavy industry are the material basis for realizing socially expanded reproduction. Under the conditions of continuous technological progress, in terms of the developmental relationship between the various material production sectors in society, the growth rate of heavy industry is generally faster than that of light industry and agriculture. This is a general law of priority growth in the production of means of production. However, the development of the heavy industry cannot but be constrained by the development of light industry and agriculture, because the development of the heavy industry is inseparable from light industry and agriculture providing consumer goods, especially light industry and agriculture providing raw materials, capital, and the broad market. Therefore, when arranging the development scale and speed of the heavy industry, the principle of coordinated development of the two major departments should be followed, and needs and possibilities should be combined for a comprehensive balance.

At present, many light industries are in a saturated state. From the perspective of investment demand, the heavy industry chain is very extensive, which can create huge market demand and is beneficial to improving international competitiveness.

Published by Jun 08, 2022 Source :wiki, Source :wiki

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