In recent years, various industrially advanced countries have used machines to replace manpower for bench work, making the application of machine tools more extensive and important. Although the processing precision of milling machines and grinding machines is superior to that of planers, the price is more expensive than planers. Generally, small and medium-sized factories still use planers for many initial processing tasks in order to take into account equipment investment costs. So what exactly is a planer? Let's take a look together.
Definition of Planning Machine
A planning machine is a linear motion machine tool that uses a planning machine to plan the plane, groove or formed surface of a workpiece. Using planning machine processing, the tool is relatively simple, but the productivity is low (except for processing long and narrow planes), so it is mainly used in single-piece, small-batch production and machine repair workshops, and is often replaced by milling machines in mass production.
Classification of Planning Machines
There are many types of planning machines and many models. According to its structural characteristics, it can be roughly divided into:
The bullhead planning machine is a planning machine used for planninging medium and small workpieces, and the working length generally does not exceed 1m. The workpiece is clamped on an adjustable workbench or clamped in a vise on the workbench, and planning is performed by using the linear reciprocating motion (cutting motion) of the planning machine and the intermittent movement (feeding motion) of the workbench.
According to the length of the workpiece that can be processed, the planning machine can be divided into three types: large, medium and small: the small planning machine can process the workpiece with a length of less than 400mm; the medium planning machine can process the length of 400~600mm workpieces; large bullhead planning machines can process workpieces with a length of 400~1000mm.
Gantry Planning Machine
It is a planning machine used to plan large workpieces. Some gantry planning machines can process workpieces with a length of tens of meters or even more than tens of meters. For medium and small workpieces, several planning machines can be clamped at one time on the workbench, and several planning machines can be used to plan at the same time, and the productivity is relatively high. The gantry planning machine uses the direct reciprocating motion (cutting) of the worktable and the intermittent movement (feeding motion) of the planning machine for planning processing. According to the different structural forms, the gantry planning machine is divided into single-arm gantry planning machine and double-arm column gantry two types of planning machines.
The planning machine is mainly used for processing large workpieces or processing multiple workpieces at the same time. Compared with the planning machine, from the structural point of view, it has a large body, complex structure, and good rigidity. From the perspective of machine tool movement, the main motion of the planning machine is the linear reciprocating motion of the worktable, while the feed motion is the horizontal motion of the planning machine. Or vertical intermittent motion, which is just the opposite of the motion of a bullshaper. The gantry planning machine is driven by a DC motor with stepless speed regulation and stable movement. All tool holders of the planning machine can be moved horizontally and vertically. The gantry planning machine is mainly used to process large planes, especially long and narrow planes. Generally, the workpiece that can be planed has a width of 1 meter and a length of more than 3 meters. The main parameter of the planning machine is the maximum planning width.
The tool holder on the beam of the gantry planning machine can make lateral feed movement on the beam guide rail to plan the horizontal surface of the workpiece; the side tool holder on the column can make vertical feed movement along the column guide rail to plan the vertical surface. The tool holder can also be deflected at a certain angle to plan inclined surfaces. The beam can be lifted up and down along the guide rail of the column to adjust the relative position of the tool and the workpiece. The planning machine is mainly used to process planes or grooves on large parts, or to process multiple medium-sized parts at the same time, especially suitable for processing narrow and long planes. The workpiece on the gantry planning machine is generally compressed with pressure plate bolts. On the gantry planning machine, there is a complex set of electrical equipment and routing system, and the movement of the table can be adjusted stepless. The company can manufacture and process various non-standard gantry planning machines, CNC floor boring and milling machines, heavy horizontal milling machines, ordinary double-column vertical lathes, heavy horizontal lathes, CNC fixed beam gantry boring and milling machines, and gantry moving beam boring and milling machines according to customer requirements. Milling machine, precision gantry boring and milling machine, single-arm planning machine, single-arm planning machine and milling machine, the equipment configuration can be arbitrarily matched, and planning head, milling head, grinding head and horizontal grinding head can also be configured according to user needs.
The slotting machine is also called the vertical planning machine, which is mainly used to process the inner surface of the workpiece. Its structure is almost exactly the same as that of the bull planning machine. The main difference is that the slotting knife of the slotting machine makes linear reciprocating motion (cutting motion) in the vertical direction. Do intermittent rotary feed movement on the circular room.
According to different transmission methods, there are two types of planning machines: mechanical transmission and hydraulic transmission: mechanical transmission planning machine, gantry planning machine and slotting machine; hydraulic transmission planning machine and slotting machine.
Features of Planning Machine
It can process vertical and horizontal planes, and can also process T-shaped grooves, V-shaped grooves, dovetail grooves, etc.
Reciprocating motion, large inertia, limited speed, single processing, but the narrow and long surface is not lower than milling.
Machining Accuracy is Not High
IT8~7, Ra is 1.6~6.3μm, but it is finely planed with a wide knife on the planer, and Ra is 0.4~0.8μm.