What Are the Common Machine Tool Types and Classifications?
Knowledge

What Are the Common Machine Tool Types and Classifications?

The machine tool is an indispensable tool in the production of industrial parts. For a long period of time, it needs to be manually operated step by step. With the advancement of science and technology, computer technology has been integrated into production, and CNC machine tools have been produced. This new type of equipment greatly improves the production efficiency, freeing people from the production process, and the automatic operation of the machine can be realized by inputting the program. Many factories and companies use CNC machine tools. It has high precision and can produce parts that cannot be made by traditional machine tools. It is one of the preferred manufacturing equipment for many processing industries.
Published: Apr 28, 2022
What Are the Common Machine Tool Types and Classifications?

Classifications of Machine Tools

A machine tool refers to a machine that makes a machine, and is generally divided into metal cutting machine tools, forging machine tools and woodworking machine tools.

  • According to processing methods, objects, or purposes, it can be divided into lathes, milling machines, planers, grinders, drilling machines, boring machines, broaching machines, gear processing machines, and etc.
  • According to the size of the workpiece and the quality of the machine tools, it can be divided into instrument machine tools, medium and small machine tools, large machine tools (10~30t), heavy machine tools (30~100t), and super-heavy machine tools (above 100t).
  • According to the machining accuracy, it can be divided into relative accuracy and absolute accuracy. Most lathes, grinders, and gear machining machines have three precision products, or three relative precision classes.
  • According to the different control methods, machine tools can be divided into traditional machine tools and CNC machine tools. Among them, the traditional machine tool is a machine tool controlled by humans, while the CNC machine tool is an automatic machine tool equipped with a program control system. Compared with traditional machine tools, CNC machine tools have greatly improved the processing efficiency and processing accuracy, and have become the mainstream of the modern machine tool industry.
  • According to the applicable scope of machine tools, it can be divided into three types: general-purpose machine tools, specialized machine tools, and special-purpose machine tools.
  • According to the structure and layout of the machine tool, it can be divided into vertical type, horizontal type, gantry type, and etc.

Applications of CNC Machine Tools


The functional components of CNC machine tools mainly include CNC system, spindle, motor, drive, lead screw, guide rail, tool magazine, swing head and turntable, etc. These are the unit technology carriers of CNC machine tools and determine the level of performance of CNC machine tools. Let's take a look at the fields where CNC machine tools can be used:

  • Aviation industry: For parts such as aircraft wings, fuselage, tail, etc. and engine parts, the required models are high-speed five-axis machining centers, gantry mobile high-speed machining centers, precision CNC lathes, precision horizontal machining centers, and multi-coordinate files. Milling centers, precision gear and threading control machine tools, etc.
  • Railway locomotive manufacturing industry: For the high-speed railway locomotive body, axles, wheels and other parts, it needs large and medium-sized CNC machine tools: CNC lathes, vertical and horizontal machining centers, five-axis machining centers, gantry file milling machines.
  • Weapons manufacturing industry: For tanks, armored vehicles, bullets, guns, cores and other products, it needs CNC lathes, vertical and horizontal machining centers, five-axis machining centers, gantry filing and milling machines, filing and milling machining centers, and gear machining, and etc.
  • Mold manufacturing industry: It is aimed at automobile panel molds, die-casting molds, forming extrusion molds, etc., requiring high-speed CNC milling machines, precision electrical machining machines, high-precision machining centers, and precision grinding machines.
  • Electronic information equipment manufacturing industry: For high-end electronic product casings, motor rotor stators, motor housing covers, etc., small precision CNC machine tools are needed: high-speed milling centers, high-speed machining centers, small precision lathes, small precision punches, precision and ultra-CNC machine tools for precision machining and precision electric machining machine tools.
  • Power equipment manufacturing industry: For power generation equipment, heavy-duty CNC gantry filing and milling machines, large-scale floor-standing filing and milling machines, large-scale CNC lathes, special milling machines for blade root grooves, and blade CNC machining machines are required.
  • Metallurgical equipment manufacturing industry: For continuous casting and rolling complete sets of equipment, large gantry milling machines and large CNC lathes are required.
  • Construction machinery manufacturing industry: For gearboxes, excavating arms, car bodies, engines and other components, small and medium-sized CNC machine tools are needed: CNC lathes, medium-sized machining centers, CNC milling machines, and gear processing machine tools.
  • Shipbuilding industry: For diesel engine body, heavy-duty and super-heavy gantry milling and filing machines and heavy-duty CNC floor milling and filing machines, as well as large-scale CNC lathes and turning-milling centers, large-scale CNC gear grinding machines, crankshaft-controlled milling machines, large-scale crankshaft turning-milling centers and crankshafts are required grinders etc.
  • Automobile manufacturing industry: For vehicle components: engines, high-efficiency, high-performance, special-purpose CNC machine tools and flexible production lines are required; for spare parts processing, CNC lathes, vertical and horizontal machining centers, and CNC high-efficiency grinders are required.

Advantages And Disadvantages of CNC Machine Tools

Advantages:
  • High machining accuracy
  • The machining accuracy of CNC machine tools is higher than that of ordinary machine tools, which can reach 0.05 to 0.1MM. Since it controls the operation of the machine in the form of digital signals, the positioning accuracy is high. Whenever the numerical control device outputs a pulse signal, the machine parts move by 0.001MM, and it can compensate the directional gap of the feed transmission chain and the average error between the screw pitches, which greatly improves the machining accuracy.
  • Stable processing quality
  • Under the normal operation of the machine tool, the same batch of products are processed under the same processing conditions, and the produced parts are highly consistent and there is not much difference in quality.
  • High production efficiency
  • The emergence of CNC machine tools has greatly improved the efficiency of production. It can move quickly, and can perform large-scale and high-speed cutting processing, which effectively reduces the processing and auxiliary time. In addition, it can issue instructions on the computer, and it does not need to be adjusted and set again and again, which reduces a lot of manpower and time.
  • Leverage production management modernization
  • CNC machine tools can greatly standardize the tools used, precise processing time, and facilitate modern management.

Disadvantages:
  • Equipment is expensive
  • The CNC machine tool itself is expensive and is generally used in the production of parts of a certain scale.
  • High technical requirements for maintenance personnel
  • CNC machine tools not only have certain requirements for users, but also higher requirements for maintenance personnel. Once the machine is damaged, it needs to be handled by a special person, and the price is relatively expensive.
Published: Apr 28, 2022 Source :kknews, Source :SGPJBG, Source :Tips Researcher

Further reading

You might also be interested in ...

Headline
Knowledge
Automation Definition and 5 Automation Values You Must Know
The emergence of automation has a great impact on people in various industries, because there are many highly repetitive labor jobs in factories, and the production capacity may vary due to differences in operators. With the introduction of Industry 4.0, Through the combination and application of various technologies, the automation of the production line can be controlled by machines from raw materials, assembly to distribution and packaging. People only need to set and check, which is a very important change for the factory. This article will share the definition of automation and the value it brings.
Headline
Knowledge
What is a Permanent Magnet?
Permanent magnets can be natural products, also known as lodestones, or artificially made. A material with a wide hysteresis loop, high coercivity, and high remanence can maintain a constant magnetism once magnetized. Also known as permanent magnetic material, hard magnetic material.
Headline
Knowledge
What is Direct Energy Deposition (DED) Metal Lamination Fabrication Printing Machine and Processing Technology?
Direct Energy Deposition (DED), also known as metal laser cladding, is one of the methods used to fabricate metal workpieces by additive manufacturing technology.
Headline
Knowledge
What are Measurements and Measuring Instruments? Understand the basic concepts of measurement
Engaging in quantitative observation cannot rely solely on human senses, such as vision, hearing, touch, etc., and often requires tools, that is, measuring instruments. Measurement refers to the numerical representation of the size of a manufactured object based on a certain standard (unit).
Headline
Knowledge
What Is A Diamond Tool?
Among the superhard materials, diamond is a kind of superhard material, and the other is cubic boron nitride. After a series of processing and processing procedures, the two superhard materials can be made into various tools and directly used to make various functional devices, which are collectively referred to as superhard material products. Here we focus on one of them - diamond grinding tool.
Headline
Knowledge
Application and Advantages of Planetary Reducer
Planetary reducer has been in existence for more than 30 years. During this long period of time, planetary reducer only appeared in high-end equipment in Europe and America. But, now automation is the trend, and planetary reducer has been widely used in machine tools, semiconductors, and packaging industries, medical food industry, aerospace, and other fields in recent years. High, medium and low power servo motors with planetary reducers have become standard. What are the applications and advantages of planetary reducers? This article will let you know more about planetary reducers.
Headline
Knowledge
What is MRO? Five Things You Have to Know!
The term MRO is an acronym that stands for maintenance, repair, and operations. The term is used to describe the set of operations and activities that are associated with the upkeep of a plant or facility which can include the physical maintenance of the structure or building, the systems that operate within the facility, and the equipment used to produce the plant or facility’s primary business output.
Headline
Knowledge
What Does BOM Management Mean? What Are the Purposes?
What does BOM management mean? What are the purposes? In manufacturing management information systems, BOM is often mentioned. BOM is the "Bill of Materials", also known as the product structure table. The Bill of Materials refers to the list of parts and components required for the product and its structure.
Headline
Knowledge
What Is a Mold? Indispensable Tools in Industrial Manufacturing
A mold is a production tool that can produce parts with certain shape and size requirements. In industrial production, various presses and special tools installed on the press are used to make metal or non-metallic materials into parts or products of the desired shape through pressure. Such special tools are collectively referred to as molds.
Headline
Knowledge
What are the Different Types of Screw Extruders and Their Functions?
What is a screw extruder? The extruder is one of the types of plastic machinery. It is the most common machinery in the modified plastics industry and is widely used in the polymer processing industry and other production and processing fields. Extruders can be divided into single-screw extruders and twin-screw extruders, and their processing has advantages and disadvantages.
Headline
Knowledge
Question About Screw Threads
Screws and bolts are common threaded fasteners. They are mechanical parts with internal or external threads. They are generally used as a mechanism for fastening to facilitate the combination of multiple components. Unlike welding, the function of the locking mechanism is easy to adjust, easy to disassemble. If a fastener has external threads and is not used with a nut, it is a screw (such as wood screws, self-tapping screws), and if it is used with a nut, it is a bolt (such as flat head bolts, non-slip bolts). Different threads have different performance applications.
Headline
Knowledge
How Much Do You Know About The Fastener?
When it comes to fasteners, everyone seems to know a little bit about it. After all, hardware such as screws and nuts are commonplace in life. Fasteners are widely used in many industries. The degree of standardization, serialization and generalization is extremely high.
Agree