At present, ordinary automobiles mainly use fossil fuels as their power source, which not only consumes a lot of petroleum resources but is also one of the main culprits of greenhouse gas emissions. In order to cope with the global trend of energy-saving and carbon reduction, many countries have adopted vehicle electrification as a greenhouse gas reduction important measure.
In the next five years, most of the world's auto brands will fully launch electric vehicles that replace original fuel models. It is estimated that the price of power batteries will drop by 20% every year. The electric vehicle market is expected to grow rapidly. China, where electric vehicles account for 50% of the world’s share, will open restrictions on foreign ownership, and international automakers will localize and expand production capacity in China, and enhance the capacity of China’s electric vehicle industry. By the mid-2020s, it will reach 50% of China’s electric vehicle sales. %. At the same time, the cost performance of electric vehicles will surpass that of fuel vehicles. The battery system is the core component of electric vehicles. The development focus is on the modularization of the electric vehicle platform, integrating the integrated design of battery packs and chassis, improving the power density of battery cells and the efficiency of battery packs, increasing the cruising range, and having 3C~4C fast charging capabilities Charging, battery working temperature control to respond to changing working environment, and applying battery management system to maintain battery safety and service life. The development and advancement of battery systems have prompted a significant increase in the proportion of electric vehicles in the global vehicles in the next few years.
Recent status of electric vehicle power batteries
Pure electric passenger vehicles are the main development project in the electric vehicle market. They can surpass traditional fuel vehicles in terms of driving range, environmental adaptability, service life, and purchase cost. The key lies in the supply quality and cost of power batteries. The gradual expansion of the electric vehicle market is a key driving force for the expansion of power battery manufacturing energy and cost reduction. In 2019, the global power battery planned production capacity is 260 GWh, with an average annual increase of 130 GWh~150 GWh, and the planned production capacity is 855 GWh by 2023. The price of batteries is declining by about 20% per year. In 2020, with an estimate of $35,000 for electric vehicles, the battery cost will account for 36% of the entire vehicle. In 2025, the battery cost will account for 25% of the entire vehicle. The price of electric vehicles will be reduced to US$30,000, and the price of power battery systems will reach the level of US$100/kWh. Around the mid-2020s, it will be a turning point in the price of pure electric vehicles and fuel vehicles.
Electric vehicle battery system development
The power battery system is the main core component of the electric vehicle. The design and selection items include cell types, cell packaging forms, Battery Management System, temperature processing system, battery pack box, auxiliary materials, etc., and from the reliability of the battery to increase the electric energy Development of projects such as density, fast charging capability, simplified and lightweight cell/module/Battery Pack structure, and system group efficiency. In China’s "Action Plan to Promote the Development of the Automotive Power Battery Industry" announced in 2017, the main goal is to significantly improve product performance. By 2020, battery cell energy density ≥300 Wh/kg, battery pack energy density ≥260 Wh/kg, the cost of the battery pack is ≤ RMB 1/Wh, the operating environment temperature reaches -30˚C~55˚C, and the charging capacity reaches 3C. By 2025, the cell energy density will reach 500 Wh/kg, indicating that the power battery performance development project and the goal.
Industry development trend
- Electric vehicle platform
If electric vehicles are retrofitted based on traditional fuel vehicles, they are limited by the structural limitations of traditional fuel vehicles and cannot achieve the optimal design of electric vehicles. For example, VW e-Golf, retrofit fuel vehicles make full use of their available space. The total battery power is 35.9 kWh, the highest cruising range is 231 kilometers. To meet the need for a cruising range of more than 400 to 600 kilometers, car manufacturers develop pure electric vehicle platforms, such as Leaf EV platform, ZOE, MEB platform, Tesla EV platform, etc. The platform's battery pack and chassis are integrated design, the battery pack structure is used to strengthen the chassis strength, and the frame of the whole vehicle chassis is used to strengthen the structural protection of the battery pack. The low-height battery modular design can be laid flat on the chassis of the vehicle, and the position of the battery module can be arranged to adjust the center of gravity of the vehicle. Electric motors and other electrical systems are placed at the height of the axle to obtain the maximum available space in the vehicle interior.
- Endurance mileage
One way to increase the range of electric vehicles is to increase the battery energy density, starting from the battery material system and increasing the battery size, such as high nickel and low cobalt cathode materials for lithium ternary batteries, cobalt-free cathode materials for lithium iron phosphate batteries, and volume Small and safe solid-state lithium batteries and high-energy-density lithium-air batteries, etc. The clues can be seen in battery products such as Panasonic/Tesla NCA811 21700 cylindrical batteries, Ningde era NCM811 square batteries, and LG Chem’s laminated laminated soft-pack batteries. In 2025, the electric energy density will be increased to 350 Wh/kg. As for the packaging types of power batteries, they can be divided into three forms: cylindrical, soft-packed, and square. Cylindrical batteries have been developed for a long time and have mature manufacturing processes.
- The market scale is expected to grow rapidly
As the electric vehicle industry continues to grow, the demand for batteries will increase accordingly. Moreover, the world's major automobile manufacturers and the governments of the United States and China also expect the electric vehicle market to grow rapidly.
- The rise of new service contract models
The cost of batteries accounts for a very high proportion of the cost structure of electric vehicles (nearly 50%), which affects the price and market popularity of electric vehicles. In order to break through the dilemma of excessive costs, a new service contract model emerged.
- Battery technology will continue to improve
Patented battery technologies mainly include the research and development of chemical-related compounds and process technologies. As the battery industry continues to develop, manufacturers with key core technologies will be able to lead the development trend of the industry. Therefore, international manufacturers include the United States, Japan, China, South Korea, etc. Actively invest in technology research and development to enhance the level of technology and competitiveness, and master technology patents.
- Government policy support and assistance
Countries that promote the development of the electric vehicle industry in the world attach great importance to the battery industry. For example, the U.S. and Chinese governments provide electric vehicle purchase subsidies or tax reduction measures to encourage the purchase of electric vehicles. Among them, the Chinese government provides only vehicle purchase subsidies. Regarding transportation vehicles such as commercial vehicles and official vehicles, not including private vehicles, the US government also provides policy incentives for industry players to develop high-end batteries to encourage the development of battery technology.